Introduction

We have several HACCP variation tables available. Below you can see the HACCP variation table that we have composed for Pathogenic . Since this table is very extensive, we recommend using the download below to view the table properly.

What are Pathogenic bacteria?

Pathogenic bacteria can cause dangerous cases of food poisoning and therefore should not be present in food at all or should not exceed a specific number per gram of food.

Table

GenusPathogenic speciesMorphologyMorphologyGrowth factor1Growth factor2Growth factor3Growth factor4Growth factor5Growth factor6Growth factor7OriginFood productMIDZiekteOpmerkingen
GrammForm, mobilityO2T (C.)T1 (C.)pHopHrawrzo %
AeromonasHydrophila, sobria, caviaNegRod, mobileFa20-354,0-42,04,0-10,0General, Mainly in water. products, , vegetables and .UnknownInfection: diarrhea, stomach ache and vomitting.Colonies have a similar as other species (coliform bacteria) therefore not always known.
BacillusCereusPosRod (3-5 um length 1 um wide) spore forming , mobileA (soms Fa)28,3510,0-48,06-7,54,9-9,3>0,91Spores can be found everywhere.Rice, rich products, pudding, sauce, herbs, spices and dairy.>106 (75% of the cases)Poisoning (Tox. 1) and infection (Tox. 2)Tox 1 is very heatstable; important to prevent growth.
CampylobacterJenuni, coliNegSpiral formed rod, mobileMa 3-15 Opt.: 5%O242-4530-476,5 – 7,54,9 – 9,5Gut flora of warm-blooded animals such as birds.Meat500Infection: Stomach ache, diarrhea, fever, sometimes meningitis.Growth does not takes place in feed, it is sensitive for drying out. Estimated is that 12-15% (around 500.000) of all cases gastroenteritis in NL is caused by this bacteria.
ClostridiumBotulinum 7 species categorized in toxins: A, B, C1, D, E, F, G)PosRod (4-8 um long and 0,9-1,2 um wide; type E 0,3-0,7 um wide), spore formingAn30-37P: 10-45 NP: 3,3-456,5-7,0P: 4,6-9,0 NP: 5,0-9,0P: >0,95 NP: >0,97P: Spores are generally present everywhere, soil, water (especially type E).Vegetables, , meat and honey are contaminated with some spores.0,2 ug toxinPoisoning by this very toxic neurotoxin; deadly unless it is treated in time.Nitrite prevents the development of spores; toxin is heat sensitive. Growth is only possible in food that is noot conserved enough. honey has caused botulism in babys.
ClostridiumPerfringens (five types on categorized on formed enterotoxins: A t/m E)PosRod (2-8 um long, 1um wide), spore formingAn, little O2 is also possible.43-4515-506-7,55,5-8,5> 0,95Can be found everywhere; type A is found the most.Especially in hot food products with high protein amounts that are not cooled fast enough after heat treatment. (meatproducts)>10 5Infection: toxinforming in small intestine leading to stomach and intestine such as stomach ache, diarrhea, mortality is low.Considering the fact that spores forming could occur everywhere are measurements focussed on inhibition of growth.
EscherichiaColi (also O157)NegRodFa30-3710-45,5 (EHEC)74,4-9,5> 0,956,0-8,0Human: EHEC: also intestine flora animals (mainly calves).With human faeces contaminated animal feed. EHEC: meat, milk (raw)> 10 (EHEC)Infection by EHEC group of wich E.coli 0157:H7 (hamburger disease) is the most severe; the mortality is around 35%.No outbreaks yet in NL, while E.coli 0157:H7 did spread US and Great Britain. This species is able to endure acids.
ListeriaMonocytogenes (11 species; 3 cause 90% of the infections)PosRod (0,5-2,0um long, 0,5um wide), mobile at 20-25°C.Fa3,0-37,00-4575-9 (bij 4gr.C) 4,4-9,0 (bij 30grC)> 0,92EverywhereRice, starch rich products, pudding, sauce, herbs, spices and dairy.UnknownInfections of healthy individuals leads to flu symptoms. Infants, Elderly, ill and pregnant women might get severe symptoms when infected by Listera. (Meningitis, blood poisining and abortus). At these groups is the mortality 30-50%.
PlesiomonasShigalloidesNegRodFa37-388,0-44,05-7,7WaterOysters and other fishery producst.Infection: stomach and intestine complaints (diarrhea, stomach ache, vomitting), could cause meningitis at sensitive individuals (very young children, elderly and immunodefficient.Very common and not really pathogenic.
Salmonella2300 species that might cause enteritis (stomach inflammation).NegRod, sometimes mobileFa35-375,0-45,074,0-9,0>0,93Gutflora warmblooded animals.Pork, (mainly chicken), eggs and raw milk.>10 5Infection: elderly experience bowel inflammation, possible fatal for children.Very common and not really pathogenic.
SalmonellaTyphus; paratyphusNegRodFa375,0-45,0HumanThrough human faeces contaminated water or food.> 10 2Typhus, paratyphus are the most severe illnesses caused by .Estimated is that 4-5% (circa 225.000) of all cases acute enteritis in the Netherlands is cuased by Salmonella.
ShigellaDiverseNegRodFa377,0-46,05,0-8,0Humanthrough human faeces contaminated water or food.> 10Infection: dysentery by inflammation of the intestinal wall. Severity is depended on the Shigella species.Most contaminations are under humans themselves. Insects or contaminated could be the source and growth in food is not mandatory to cause the illness.
StaphylococcusAureus, not all species are pathogenic.PosCoc (0,5-1um in diameter), coccus are formed in a grape-like cluster.Fa3710,0-45,06,5-7,55,2-9,0>0,85 opt: >0,98Mainly humans. On the otherside also pork, poultry and cattle.By insufficient personal is possible; Cream, salads and .> 106 1ng toxine per gram voedselPoisoning by in the food formed toxin results in vomitting and stomach ache. Compared with othre infections are the symptoms mild.Toxin is heat stable (minimum 30 minutes at 100o C for inactivation); toxin could be present without the presence of living bacteria.
YersiniaEntero-colitica (some specie are pathogenic)NegRod, sometimes round, sometimes mobileFa32-340-447,0-8,04,6-9,0 bij 25 o CWarm-blooded animals (especially in the esophagus of pigs), present in brooks, lakes, fish, birds and oysters.Pigs tongue, Raw milk, vacumized meat, diverse types of fresh meat, soorten , crab, fish, oysters, shrimps, vegetables, drinkwater.> 10 6Infection: diarrhea, disease similar to appendicitis and is rarely fatal.Toxin is heatstable (minimum 30 minuten at 100o C to inactivate); toxin could be present without the precence of living bacteria.
VibrioCholeraeNegVibrio formed, mobileFa30-3715-426,0-10,0HumanThrough human faeces contaminated water or food.> 10 3Cholera
VibrioParahae-molyticusNegVibrio formed, mobileFa3713-437,5-8.54,5-5>0,94Needs Min: 0,5; Max:8Warm coast waters especially in the summer.Fish products from contaminated coastwater.> 10 4Infection: stomach and intestine issues (vomitting, stomach pain, diarrhea), mortality is low.Very sensitive to drought.
VibriovulnificusNegVibrio formed, mobileFa375,0-44,0>7Needs salt Min:1-2; Max:6Warm coast waters especially in the summer.Fish product from contaminated coast waters.