Introduction to bacteria
We have several HACCP variation tables available. Below you can see the HACCP variation table we have composed for Pathogenic bacteria. Since this table is very extensive, we recommend using the download below to view the table properly.
What are Pathogenic bacteria?
Pathogenic bacteria can cause dangerous cases of food poisoning and therefore should not be present in food at all or should not exceed a specific number per gram of food.
Table: possible pathogenic bacteria hazards
|Genus||Pathogenic species||GR||Form, mobility||O₂||T (C.)||T1 (C.)||pH-O||pH-R||aW||so %||Origin||Food product||MID||Illness||Comments||Common Food Products|
|Aeromonas||hydrophilic, sobria, caviae||–||Rod, mobile||Fa||20-35||4,0-42,0||4,0-10,0||>0.97||Mainly in wastewater.||Fish products, meat, vegetables and milk.||Unknown||Infection: diarrhoea, stomachache and vomiting.||Colonies look similar to other coliform species. Therefore, it is difficult to determine.||Water, fish, shellfish, eggs, vegetables, (chicken) meat|
|Bacillus||cereus||+||Rod (3-5 um length 1 um wide) spore forming, mobile||Aerobe (sometimes Fa)||28,35||10,0-48,0||6-7,5||4,9-9,3||>0.91||Spores can be found everywhere.||Rice, starch-rich products, pudding, sauce, herbs, spices and dairy.||>106 (75% of the cases)||Poisoning (Tox. 1) and infection (Tox. 2)||Tox 1 is very heat stable; essential to prevent growth.||Rice, starchy products, puddings, sauces, herbs, spices, dairy|
|Campylobacter||jenuni, coli||–||Spiral formed rod, mobile.||Mon 3-15 Opt.: 5% oxygen||42-45||30-47||6,5 – 7,5||4,9 – 9,5||>0.98||The gut flora of warm-blooded animals such as birds.||Meat||500||Infection: Stomachache, diarrhoea, fever, sometimes meningitis.||Growth does not take place in food. Sensitive to dehydration. It is estimated that 12-15% (around 500,000) of all cases of acute gastroenteritis in the Netherlands are caused by this bacteria.||Meat, vegetable dish, soup sauce, pudding, (spices)|
|Clostridium||botulinum seven species categorized into toxins: A, B, C1, D, E, F, G)||+||Rod (4-8 um long and 0,9-1,2 um wide; type E 0,3-0,7 um wide), spore forming||Anear.||30-37||P: 10-45 NP: 3,3-45||6,5-7,0||P: 4.6-9.0 NP: 5.0-9.0||P: >0.95 NP: >0.97||Spores are generally everywhere, soil and water (especially type E).||Vegetables, fruit, meat and honey are contaminated with some spores.||0.2 ug toxin||Poisoning by this very toxic neurotoxin; is deadly unless it is treated in time.||Nitrite prevents the development of spores; toxin is heat sensitive. Only sufTherefore, only growth is possible in food not correctly preserved. Honey has caused botulism in babies.||Canned goods, garlic in oil, vacuum-packed meal components, 12 concept|
|Clostridium||perfringens (five types categorized on formed enterotoxins: A to E)||+||Rod (2-8 um long, 1um wide), spore-forming||Anear. Low oxygen levels are also possible.||43-45||15-50||6-7,5||5,5-8,5||> 0.95||It can be found everywhere; type A is found the most.||Especially in hot food products with high protein amounts that are not cooled fast enough after heat treatment. (meat products)||>10 5||Infection: toxin forming in the small intestine leads to stomach and intestine complaints such as stomachache, diarrhoea, and low mortality.||Because spores forming could occur everywhere are, preventive measurements focused on inhibition of growth.||Meat dishes. soup (herbs), roast beef|
|Escherichia||coli (also O157:H7)||–||Rod||Fa||30-37||10-45.5 (EHEC)||7||4,4-9,5||> 0.95||6,0-8,0||Human: EHEC: also intestine flora animals (mainly calves).||With human faeces contaminated animal feed. EHEC: meat, milk (raw)||> 10 (EHEC)||Infection by EHEC group of which E. coli 0157:H7 (hamburger disease) is the most severe; the mortality is around 35%.||There have been no outbreaks yet in the Netherlands, while E.coli 0157:H7 spread to the US and Great Britain. This is because this species can endure organic acids.||Beef, hamburger, raw milk cheese, apple cider, sprouts|
|Listeria||monocytogenes (11 species; 3 cause 90% of the infections)||+||Rod (0,5-2,0um long, 0,5um wide), mobile at 20-25°C.||Fa||3,0-37,0||0-45||7||5-9 (at 4gr. C) 4,4-9,0 (at 30grC)||> 0.92||Everywhere||Rice, starch-rich products, pudding, sauce, herbs, spices and dairy.||Unknown||Infections of healthy individuals lead to flu symptoms. Infants, the Elderly, the ill and pregnant women might get severe symptoms when infected by Listera. (Meningitis, blood poisoning and abortion). In these risk groups is the mortality 30-50%.||Raw milk cheese, smoked fish, cooked meats, salad|
|Plesiomonas||shigalloides||–||Rod||Fa||37-38||8,0-44,0||5-7,7||Water||Oysters and other fishery products.||Infection: stomach and intestine complaints (diarrhoea, stomachache, vomiting) could cause meningitis in sensitive individuals (very young children, elderly and immunodeficiency||Very common and not pathogenic.|
|Salmonella||Two thousand three hundred species that might cause enteritis (stomach inflammation).||–||Rod, sometimes mobile||Fa||35-37||5,0-45,0||7||4,0-9,0||>0.93||Gut flora warm-blooded animals.||Pork, poultry (mainly chicken), eggs and raw milk.||>10 5||Infection: intestinal inflammation. For the elderly, small children and sick, illness can be fatal.||Very common and not pathogenic. More specific information on this hazard is in this iMIS Salmonella sheet.||Poultry, eggs, raw meat, milk, vegetables|
|Salmonella||typhus; paratyphus||–||Rod||Fa||37||5,0-45,0||>0.93||Human||Human faeces contaminated water or food.||> 10 2||Typhus, paratyphus are the most severe illnesses caused by Salmonella.||Estimated is that 4-5% (circa 225,000) of all cases of acute enteritis in the Netherlands are caused by Salmonella.||Poultry, eggs, raw meat, milk, vegetables|
|Shigella||Several||–||Rod||Fa||37||7,0-46,0||5,0-8,0||Human||through human faeces contaminated water or food.||> 10||Infection: dysentery by inflammation of the intestinal wall. Severity is dependent on the Shigella species.||Most contaminations are under humans themselves. However, insects or contaminated staff could be the source, and growth in food is not mandatory to cause the illness.||Via faeces or contaminated water|
|Staphylococcus||aureus, not all species are pathogenic.||+||Coc (0.5-1um in diameter), coccus are formed in a grape-like cluster.||Fa||37||10,0-45,0||6,5-7,5||5,2-9,0||>0.85 opt: >0.98||Mainly humans. On the other side also pork, poultry and cattle.||Due to inadequate human hygiene, contamination food possible: cream, salads, and meats.||> 106 1ng toxins per gram of food||Toxin results in vomiting and stomachache. Compared with other infections are, the symptoms mild.||The toxin is heat stable (minimum 30 minutes at 100° C for inactivation); the toxin could be present without the presence of living bacteria.||Raw milk cheese, cooked meats, whipped cream|
|Yersinia||entero-colitica (some species are pathogenic)||–||Rod, sometimes round, sometimes mobile||Fa||32-34||0-44||7,0-8,0||4.6-9.0 at 25° C||>0.96||Warm-blooded animals (especially in the oesophagus of pigs) are present in brooks, lakes, fish, birds and oysters.||Pigs tongue, Raw milk, vacuumed meat, various types of fresh meat, fresh meat, crab, fish, oysters, shrimps, vegetables, and tap water.||> 10 6||Infection: diarrhoea, a disease similar to appendicitis and is rarely fatal.||The toxin is heat stable (minimum of 30 minutes at 100° C to inactivate); the toxin could be present without the presence of living bacteria.||Pork, raw milk, water|
|Vibrio||cholera||–||Vibrio formed, mobile.||Fa||30-37||15-42||6,0-10,0||>0.94||Human||Human faeces contaminated water or food.||> 10 3||Cholera||Crustaceans and shellfish|
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