Introduction to bacteria

We have several HACCP variation tables available. Below you can see the HACCP variation table we have composed for Pathogenic bacteria. Since this table is very extensive, we recommend using the download below to view the table properly.

What are Pathogenic bacteria?

Pathogenic bacteria can cause dangerous cases of food poisoning and therefore should not be present in food at all or should not exceed a specific number per gram of food.

Table: possible pathogenic bacteria hazards

GenusPathogenic speciesGRForm, mobilityO₂T (C.)T1 (C.)pH-OpH-RaWso %OriginFood MIDIllnessCommentsCommon Food
AeromonasRod (3-5 um length 1 um wide) spore-forming, Rod, mobileFa20-354,0-42,04,0-10,0>0.97Mainly in wastewater.Fish products, meat, vegetables and .UnknownInfection: diarrhoea, stomachache and vomiting.Colonies look similar to other coliform species. Therefore, it is difficult to determine., fish, shellfish, eggs, vegetables, (chicken) meat
Bacilluscereus+Rod (3-5 μglength 1 μg wide) spore-forming, mobileAerobe (sometimes Fa)28,3510,0-48,06-7,54,9-9,3>0.91Spores can be found everywhere.Rice, starch-rich products, pudding, sauce, herbs, spices and .>106 (75% of the cases)Poisoning (Tox. 1) and infection (Tox. 2)Tox 1 is very heat stable; essential to prevent growth.Rice, starchy products, puddings, sauces, herbs, spices, dairy
Campylobacterjenuni, coliSpiral formed rod, mobile.Mon 3-15 Opt.: 5% oxygen42-4530-476,5 – 7,54,9 – 9,5>0.98 The gut flora of warm-blooded animals such as birds.Meat500Infection: Stomachache, diarrhoea, fever, sometimes meningitis.Growth does not take place in food. Sensitive to dehydration. It is estimated that 12-15% (around 500,000) of all cases of acute gastroenteritis in the Netherlands are caused by this bacteria.Meat, vegetable dish, soup sauce, pudding, (spices)
botulinum seven species categorized into toxins: A, B, C1, D, E, F, G)+Rod (4-8 μg long and 0,9-1,2 μg wide; type E 0,3-0,7 μg wide), spore-formingAnear.30-37P: 10-45 NP: 3,3-456,5-7,0P: 4.6-9.0 NP: 5.0-9.0P: >0.95 NP: >0.97Spores are generally everywhere, soil and water (especially type E).Vegetables, , meat and honey are contaminated with some spores.0.2 μg toxinNitrite prevents the of spores; the toxin is heat sensitive. Only sufTherefore, only growth is possible in food not correctly preserved. Honey has caused botulism in babies.Nitrite prevents the development of spores; the toxin is heat sensitive. Therefore, growth is possible only in food not correctly preserved. Honey has caused botulism in babies.Canned goods, garlic in oil, vacuum-packed meal components,
Clostridiumperfringens (five types categorized on formed enterotoxins: A to E)+Rod (2-8 μg long, 1 μg wide), spore-formingAnear. Low oxygen levels are also possible.43-4515-506-7,55,5-8,5> 0.95It can be found everywhere; type A is found the most.Especially in hot food products with high protein amounts that are not cooled fast enough after heat treatment. ()>10 5Infection: toxin forming in the small intestine leads to stomach and intestine such as stomachache, diarrhoea, and low mortality.Because spores forming could occur everywhere preventive measurements are focused on the inhibition of growth.Meat dishes. soup (herbs), roast beef
Escherichiacoli (also O157:H7)RodFa30-3710-45.5 (EHEC)74,4-9,5> 0.956,0-8,0Human: EHEC: also intestine flora animals (mainly calves).With human faeces contaminated animal feed. EHEC: meat, milk (raw)> 10 (EHEC)Infection by EHEC group of which 0157:H7 (hamburger disease) is the most severe; the mortality is around 35%.There have been no outbreaks yet in the Netherlands, while E.coli 0157:H7 spread to the US and Great Britain. This is because this species can endure organic acids.Beef, hamburger, raw milk cheese, apple cider, sprouts
Listeriamonocytogenes (11 species; 3 cause 90% of the infections)+Rod (0,5-2,0 μg long, 0,5 μg wide), mobile at 20-25°C.Fa3,0-37,00-4575-9 (at 4gr. C) 4,4-9,0 (at 30grC)> 0.92EverywhereRice, starch-rich products, pudding, sauce, herbs, spices and dairy.UnknownInfections of healthy individuals lead to flu . Infants, the elderly, the ill and pregnant women might get severe symptoms when infected by Listera. (Meningitis, blood poisoning and abortion). In these is the mortality 30-50%.Raw milk cheese, smoked fish, cooked meats, salad
PlesiomonasshigalloidesRodFa37-388,0-44,05-7,7WaterOysters and other fishery products.Infection: stomach and intestine complaints (diarrhoea, stomachache, vomiting) could cause meningitis in sensitive individuals (very young children, elderly and immunodeficientVery common and not pathogenic. 
SalmonellaTwo thousand three hundred species that might cause enteritis (stomach inflammation).Rod, sometimes mobileFa35-375,0-45,074,0-9,0>0.93Gut flora warm-blooded animals.Pork, (mainly chicken), eggs and raw milk.>10 5Infection: intestinal inflammation. For the elderly, small children and sick, illness can be fatal.Very common and not pathogenic. Poultry, eggs, raw meat, milk, vegetables
Salmonellatyphus; paratyphusRodFa375,0-45,0>0.93HumanHuman faeces contaminated water or food.> 10 2Typhus, parathyphus are the most severe illnesses caused by Salmonella.It is estimated that 4-5% (circa 225,000) of all cases of acute enteritis in the Netherlands are caused by Salmonella.Poultry, eggs, raw meat, milk, vegetables
ShigellaSeveralRodFa377,0-46,05,0-8,0HumanThrough human faeces contaminated water or food.> 10Infection: dysentery by inflammation of the intestinal wall. Severity is dependent on the Shigella species.Most contaminations are under humans themselves. However, insects or contaminated could be the source, and growth in food is not mandatory to cause the illness.Via faeces or contaminated water
Staphylococcusaureus, not all species are pathogenic.+Coc (0.5-1um in diameter), coccus are formed in a grape-like cluster.Fa3710,0-45,06,5-7,55,2-9,0>0.85 opt: >0.98Mainly humans. On the other side also pork, poultry and cattle.Due to inadequate human , food possible: cream, salads, and meats.> 106 1μg toxins per gram of foodToxin results in vomiting and stomachache. Compared with other infections are, the symptoms mild.The toxin is heat stable (minimum 30 minutes at 100° C for inactivation); the toxin could be present without the presence of living bacteria.Raw milk cheese, cooked meats, whipped cream
Yersiniaentero-colitica (some species are pathogenic)Rod, sometimes round, sometimes mobileFa32-340-447,0-8,04.6-9.0 at 25° C>0.96Warm-blooded animals (especially in the esophagus of pigs), present in brooks, lakes, fish, birds and oysters.Pigs tongue, Raw milk, vacuumed meat, various types of fresh meat, fresh meat, crab, fish, oysters, shrimps, vegetables, and tap water.> 10 6Infection: diarrhoea, a disease similar to appendicitis and is rarely fatal.The toxin is heat stable (minimum of 30 minutes at 100° C to inactivate); the toxin could be present without the presence of living bacteria.Pork, raw milk, water
VibriocholeraVibrio formed, mobile.Fa30-3715-426,0-10,0>0.94HumanHuman faeces contaminated water or food.> 10 3Cholera and shellfish 
Vibrio
Parahae-molyticus
Vibrio formed, mobileFa






3713-437,5-8.54,5-5>0,94Needs salt Min: 0,5; Max:8Warm coast waters especially in the summer.Fish products from contaminated coastwater.> 10 4Infection: stomach and intestine issues (vomitting, stomach pain, diarrhea), mortality is low.
Very sensitive to drought.
VibriovulnificusVibrio formed, mobileFa375,0-44,0>7
Needs salt Min:1-2; Max:6
Warm coast waters especially in the summerFish product from contaminated coast waters.
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