Table 1 possible derived from Hazards Pathogens

B. CereusCamppylob.Cl. Bot.Cl. PerfrE. Coli 0157L. MonoSalmonellaS. AureusV. Parahae M.
Cereals, nuts++


Table 1 Common microbiological hazards

PathogensGRO2T (1)pHMin. AwInc, TimeDurationDRVV / VISymptomsProducts
B. Cereus+faMay-50May 90.920.5-6 hours24 hours+/- 10 µg / kg per body weightVVSimilar to S. aureusRice, starchy products, puddings, sauces, herbs, spices, dairy
8-24 hours1-2 days> 100 000 / gVIResembles C. perfringens, vegetable dish, soup sauce, pudding, (spices)

Table 2 possible mycotoxins, derived Hazard table Mycotoxins

Mycotoxin (toxin from fungus)Fungus {1}Agricultural raw / FoodstuffsADI or AWI (ug / kg body weight)EffectsLegal Remarks
aflatoxin (five species: B1, B2, G1, G2; M1 occurs in and comes from B1) and M2 (M1 and M2 are conversion products of Aflatoxin B1, B2 into lactating mammalsAspergillus flavus Aspergillus parasiticus
Aspergillus nomius
Cereal, buckwheat, corn and maize products, cottonseed, peanuts and other nuts (pistachios, walnuts), spices, dried figs, milk (products), soy and soybeans, sesame seedsnone ADIAcutely toxic; affects liver, kidneys. Chronic: carcinogenic (carcinogenic) → especially liver.Maximum levels according to Regulation (EC) 1881/2006 B 1 is the most common and most toxic and carcinogen In milk (products) aflatoxin M 1 occurs as a degradation product of B 1. About 1-3% B 1 is n milk converted to M 1. M 1 is less toxic and carcinogenic than B 1. In addition to M 1, more breakdown products of B 1 have been found in milk. grow mainly in the tropics during ostorage and transport at high (optimum 25 o C: range 8-37) and / or high (> 83%). In developed countries (US) aflatoxins especially during bad growing season (drought stress).
Aspergillus ochraceus; Penicillium viridicatum; Penicillium purpures-cens; Penicillium verrucosumBarley, Rye, Wheat, Rice, Corn, Peanuts, Brazilian Nuts, Peppers, Cottonseed, CheeseAWI of toxin A: 0.112 (JECFA, 1990) Limit value: 10 µg / kg food. LD 50 (rat, oral) of toxin A: 20 mg / kgAcute: damage to kidneys and liver; possible renal carcinogen (already shown in rats), teratogenic.Maximum levels according to Regulation (EC) 1881/2006Toxin A is more toxic than B. In the Netherlands such low levels are found that the is small → no norm. Fungi growth possible in temperate climate. Toxin A is inactivated at T> 221 o C
SterigmatocystinAspergillus versicolor; Aspergillus ruber; Aspergillus flavus; Penicillium luteum A. nidulans, Bipolaris, Buckwheat, Wheat, Rice, Peanut, Soy, Cheese, Cheese Crust, Green Coffee Beans, Processed Cheeseno ADIAcute: damage to liver, teratogenic. Chronic: mutagenic, carcinogenicIn the Netherlands, research has been conducted into the occurrence of toxins in grain, buckwheat and soy products. Toxin has not been found and is not considered necessary.
patulinApergillus clavatus; Penicillium roqueforti; Penicillium expansum; Penicillium patulumApple, apple juice, moldy fruits, cereals, cheese, sausageAWI: 7 (JECFA, 1989)Acutely toxic (damage to lungs, brain, liver, kidneys); carcinogenic activity not demonstrated (IARC, 1985)Maximum levels according to Regulation (EC) 1881/2006During apple juice to cider and by vitamin C destruction takes place. Dutch research has not shown any carcinogenicity → standard not necessary. Patulin content can be an indication for GMP guidelines (no rotten apples used).
Claviceps purpurea; Claviceps paspaliRye (especially), wheat, barley, oats.ADI: 0.001 mg / kg (human) {2}.
Drug: 0.125 mg / kg
Hallucinations, gangrene.Carcinogenicity not demonstrated.Maximum levels according to Regulation (EC) 1881/2006Europe: last cases of human disease in 1951. Common disease in the Middle Ages (St. Anthony’s fire). Toxins are contained in hard purple granules. Toxin formation takes place in the field.
deoxynivalenol =
DON (main group: trichothecenes)
Fusarium spp.
Fusarium graminearum
Wheat, barley, maize, oats, rye, rice, cereal flakes and branADI adults: 3
ADI children: 1.5 (NRC, Canada 1985)
Acutely toxic: various effects (including vomiting, damage to the immune system). Possibly teratogenic. Carcinogenicity not establishedMaximum levels according to Regulation (EC) 1881/2006Little is known about the effect and toxicity; more research is needed. On the field, toxin is usually produced. Fusarium spp. occur on cereals in temperate regions.
nivalenol = NIV (main group trichothecenes)coli, Fusarium tricinctumWheat, barley, maize, oats, rye, rice, cereal flakes and branMaximum levels according to Regulation (EC) 1881/2006Usually found next to DON. Toxin is usually produced in the field.
fumonisin B1, B2 and B3Fusarium moniliformeMaize and maize productsPossibly carcinogenic to esophagus and liver.Maximum levels according to Regulation (EC) 1881/2006