Legislation

Table 1 in fishcrustaceans and shellfish derived from the Status of food-safety (Dutch Food Safety Authority)

RegulationDescription
(EC) No 178/2002General principles and of food law establishing the European Food Authority and laying down in matters of food safety
(EC) No 853/2004 in the production of products of animal origin
(EC) No 2073/2005Microbiological criteria for food
(EC) No 854/2004Official on food from animal products
(EC) No 1881/2006Determining maximum levels of certain pollutants

Microbiology

Table 2 Common microbiological hazards

PathogensGRO2T (1)pHMin. AwInc, TimeDurationDRVV / VISymptoms
Aeromonasfa5-405-90.978-48 hours2 -7 days100 000 000VIAbdominal pain, (watery) diarrhoea
Bacillus Cereus+Ae/fa10-4.84.9-9.30.910.5-6 hours6- 24 hours> 10VI/VVSimilar to S. aureus
Campylobacter Jejunim.aer.30-456-80.98 *2-10 days (Usually 2)days to weeks100-500VIFever, stomach ache, bloody diarrhoea
Vibrio choleraefa10-455-90.96few hours to 5 daysfew days> 1000VIWater-thin, thin diarrhoea, possibly. fever (a lot of fluid loss)
Vibrio parahaemolyticusfa5-455-110.924 – 96 hours2-5 days> 100 000VIDiarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, headache, fever, stomach pain
Listeria monocytogenes+fa0-454.5-90.92 days to 4 weeksunknown> 1 000> 1 000 000VIFever, septicemia, meningitis, miscarriage
E. coli O157fa5-504-90.963-4 days2 – 5 days10-100VIBloody diarrhoea, risk of HUS
Salmonella Enteritis and othersfa5-504-90.948 – 72 hours1 – 3 days> 100 000 (sometimes 10)VIDiarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, headache, fever, stomach pain

 Table 3 Virusesrickettsia in fishcrustaceans and products, derived from Hazard table Viruses, rickettsia, prions

, RickettsiaOriginFoodMIDDisease
Measures
Comments
Hepatitis AHumanAll foods directly contaminated by humans or food contaminated by faecal contaminated water → especially shellfish.Some virus particlesInfectious jaundice. Incubation period: 2 to 6 weeks.o Hygiene
o Do not allow infected persons to process raw food
o Heating: a few minutes at 85-90 ° C
o Sensitive groups should not consume raw shellfish
Resistant to chlorination. Due to the low incubation period it is difficult to establish a link to food
Viral gastro-enteritis (buikgriep met diarree, buikpijn, overgeven) virussen (AdenovirusAstro-virusCalicivirusCoronavirusNor-walkvirusRotavirus)HumanAll foodproducts direct or via aerosols of vomit from contaminated humans or through faecal contaminated water → mainly shellfishSeveral virus particlesGastro-enteritis. Incubation time: 12-50 hours; infants and small children are extra sensitive for viruses.o Hygiene personnel
o contaminated individuals are not allowed to handle raw food products.
o Heating: several minutes at 85-90 ° C
o Sensitive groups should prevent consumption of raw shellfish.
Norwalkvirus is the most common in older children and adults. Rotavirus could be fatal for young children and infants. 30% of gastro-enteritis is by the virus caused (not necessary through food!).
Norwalk-like Viruses (belongs to the family of Calici virusesFoods that are not heated before consumption, shellfish and crops vegetables and 10-100 (very low)o Infection causes explosive diarrhea, nausea, vomiting and fever.
o Vomiting mainly occurs in children.
o Incubation time: 24-48 hours. \ \ o Duration of clinical picture: 2 days.
o Medication is not available but also not necessary.
o All consumers are susceptible to infection.
o Groups with reduced immunity (YOPIs) are at extra risk.
o Infected people remain approx. 3 days after the end of symptoms contagious.
O Do not use possibly faecally contaminated water in the production of fresh food.
o Heating for one and a half minutes at 90 ° C inactivates viruses.
o Improving hygiene in the entire food chain. \ \ o who must (possibly) be infected temporarily perform other work, even a few days after the symptoms have disappeared. Curbing the spread of virus in those areas where infected shellfish are farmed.
o Development of microbiological quality criteria for viruses.
o NLV viruses are highly contagious. There are no toxins.
o These types of viruses can cause an epedemic, especially in institutions where many people live close to each other.
o NLVs can survive well if a is not heated.
o There are no regulations for reducing viral foodborne infections.
o Viruses need to multiply.

Chemistry

Table 4 possible chemical hazards

SubstanceFoodLegalRemarks
dioxins: polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans PCDFs, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) (through feed) and poultry meat, (in particular certain fatty fish such as herring and salmon) and vegetables, oils and fats, dairy and eggsmax. content 684/2004, EC regulation no. 2375/2001formed from chlorine-containing compounds during heating under oxygen-poor conditions. Carcinogenic to humans and animals above a certain threshold level
PCBs (the collective name for a group of 209 chemically prepared synthetic substances that do not occur naturallymeat (via feed) and poultry meat, fish (especially certain fatty fish such as herring and salmon) and vegetables, oils and fats, dairy and eggsmax content 684/2004, EC regulation no. 2375/2001carcinogenic to humans and animals. Furthermore: skin disorders, disorders of the reproductive system and liver diseases. PCBs burn above 1200 ° C, dissolve poorly in water and are used as a plasticizer in art dust, paint, ink, varnish and glue and in insecticides
polybrominated diphenyl ethersvia water in fish

Biotoxins

Table 5 possible biotoxins in fish, shellfish and crustaceans.

Name of poisoningOriginFoodToxic dose (ug)DiseasePreventive
measures
Remarks
ciquateraSingle-celled sea plant or dinoflagel leaves present in tropical reefs: Gaberdiscus toxicusFish that have eaten plant directly or indirectly through other fishNeurotoxin: paralysis can lead to death, but mortality is low (2-7%); illness can last a long time. Incubation: approximately 30 hours.Tropical fish
scrombroidMicrobiological degradation of the substance present (histidine → histamine) in fishMackerel-like fish (Mackerel, sardines, tuna).
Allergic reaction. Incubation: 10-90 minutes.
Store fish in a cool place (
The toxin is heat stable
amnesic-shellfish-poison-aspAlg (diatom of the species Nitzschia punges).Accumulation takes place in shellfish.Memory loss, sometimes permanent.Monitoring the growth of algae that produce toxic substancesThe toxin is heat stable. US and Canadian East Coast only
paralytic-shellfish-poison-psp {paralysis}Alg (Dinoflagellate)Accumulation takes place in shellfish.500-5000 (mesn). 0.3 (mouse, death after 5-7 minutes)The toxin blocks nerve transmission. Mortality: 1-20%. Incubation: 1-30 min.Monitoring the growth of algae that produce toxic substancesThe toxin is heat stable. Algae are not yet found in Dutch waters, but algae can grow in temperate regions.
diarrhetic-shellfish-poison-dspAlg (dinoflagellate).Accumulation takes place in shellfish.50 (mild signs of disease in humans based on okadaic acid)Diarrhoea, abdominal pain, vomiting. Incubation: 30 minutes to several hours.Monitoring the growth of algae that produce toxic substancesThe toxin is heat stable. Algae has been found in Dutch waters.
nerutoxic-shellfish-poison-nspAlg (dinoflagellate); levels can be so high that the sea turns red (red tide)Accumulation takes place in shellfish.10 (lethal to mouse)Block nerve impulse transmission. Rarely fatal. Incubation: 2 minutes to several hoursMonitoring the growth of algae that produce toxic substances

Fraud

Fraud Status food safety summary
The fish chain lends itself to various forms of . Some examples follow.

• Fish species such as bluefin tuna, cod and sole can be replaced by fish that are much cheaper. In a filleted state, this can only be found out by performing DNA analyzes.
• MSC-certified fish offered cannot in reality be MSC-certified fish.
• Improper handling and the use of and dyes can make fish appear fresher than it actually is.
• Quotas, which limit the maximum catch of many fish species to prevent overfishing, can be circumvented by keeping caught fish off the books and landing illegally.
• Weight indications do not have to correspond to reality.

Unfortunately, we have to note that all these forms of fraud occur in the fishing industry. This can affect food safety. The Dutch -IOD sees the following forms of fraud: converting, upgrading, and keeping quoted fish out of the books. These forms of fraud are briefly explained below.