Introduction

We have several HACCP tables. Below you can see the HACCP variation table which we have composed concerning the subject ‘Mycotoxins’. Since this table is very extensive, we recommend using the download below to view the table properly.

What are Mycotoxins?

A (from the Gk. μύκης (mykes) “fungus”) is a poison (toxin) produced by an organism of the fungal family, such as mushrooms, filamentous , and yeast. Most fungi are aerobic (they use oxygen), and are found almost everywhere in very small amounts because of their spores. Fungi can grow on crops such as grains, nuts and (legume) fruits, but can also end up in products made from them, such as and peanut butter.

Products are closely monitored for fungal toxins. Therefore, the to health is very small. The health benefits of grains, nuts and (legume) fruits far outweigh these.

Table

Mycotoxin (toxin from fungus)FungusAgricultural raw and foodproductsADI of AWI (ug/kg body weight)EffectsLegislatory Comments
SterigmatocystineAspergillus versicolor; Aspergillus ruber; Aspergillus flavus; Penicillium luteum A. nidulans, Bipolaris., buckwheat, wheat, rice, peanut, soy, cheese, cheese crust, green coffee beans and melting cheese.No ADIAcute: Damage on liver, tetratogen. Chronic: mutagenic and carcinogenic. Maximum levels according to Regulation (EC) 1881/2006In the Netherlands is research conducted on the presence of toxins in grain, buckwheat and soy products. Toxins are not found and therefore is considered unnessesary.
PatulinApergillus clavatus; Penicillium roqueforti; Penicillium expansum; Penicillium patulumApples, apple juice, beschimmelde fruits, grains, cheese and sausageAWI: 7 (JECFA, 1989)Acute toxic (damaging of lungs, brains, liver and kidneys); carcino- genenic effects are not found(IARC, 1985).Maximum levels according to Regulation (EC) 1881/2006 At of apple juice to Cider and through vitamin C takes destruction place. Dutch research didn’t found any carcinogenic effects and therefore is there no norm needed. The Patulin content can be an indication for the handling of GMP-guidelines (to establish that rotten apples are not used).
Ergot-toxinsClaviceps purpurea; Claviceps paspaliRye (mainly), wheat, barley, oats.ADI: 0,001 mg/kg (Human) {2}.Medicinal: 0,125 mg/kgHallucinations, gangrene. Carcinogenicity is not proved yet.Maximum levels according to Regulation (EC) 1881/2006Europe: last human was in 1951. In the middle ages was it a common disease (St. Anthoniusvuur). Toxins are encapsulated by stiff purple granules. Toxin forming takes already place at agricultural level.
Deoxynivalenol = DON (hoofdgroep: trichothecenen)Fusarium spp. Fusarium graminearumWheat, barley, maize, oats, rye, rice, grain flakes and bran.ADI Adults: 3 ADI, children: 1,5 (NRC, Canada 1985)Acute toxic: several effects ( such as vomitting and degradating immunitiy). Possible tetragene. Carcinogenicity is not proved.Maximum levels according to Regulation (EC) 1881/2006 The interactions and toxicity is are relatively unknown; more research is preffered. Fusarium spp. is found on grains in temperate climates and its toxins are produced at agricultural level.
Nivalenol =NIV (main group of trichothecenes)Coli, Fusarium tricinctumWheat, barley, maize, oats, rye, rice, cereal flakes and bran.   Maximum levels according to Regulation (EC) 1881/2006Mostly found next to DON and toxins are produced mainly on agricultural level.
Fumonisin B1, B2 and B3.Fusarium moniliformeMaize and maize products Possible carcinogenic for esophagus and liver. Maximum levels according to Regulation (EC) 1881/2006 
T 2 -toxine (main group: tricho-thecenes)Fusarium spp.Millet, wheat, oats, barley, rye, bckwheat, peanuts, maize and sorghum. Acute toxic: alimentary toxic aleukia (ATA) → 80% dies. Possible also mutagenic and teratogenic.Maximum levels according to Regulation (EC) 1881/2006 Growth of fungus is stimulated by low temperatures, especially around the freezing point. Hibernating of grains on the field is not recommended. Inactivation of toxines happens at temperatures higher than 200 °C. Inactivations of toxin at temperatures higher than 200 °C.
ZearalenonFusarium spp. among others: Fusarium graminaerum Fusarium roseum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium moniliformeMaize, sorghum, wheat, barley. Negative oestrogenic effects on fertility. Probably mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic.Maximum levels according to Regulation (EC) 1881/2006 Forming of toxines is stimulated by temperatures for a long time around freezing point and from low to moderate temperatures. Fungal growth happens mainly on the field but it is also possible during . Inactivation of the toxins happens at temperatures higher than 165 °C.
Rubratoxine (A and B)Penicillium rubrumGround, peanuts, legumes, maize, sunflower seeds. Acute toxic Maximum levels according to Regulation (EC) 1881/2006Diseases are often found at animals who consumed contaminated animal feed. Inactivation of the toxin A happens at temperatures higher than 214 °C and toxine B at temperatures higher than 170 °C.
Yellow-rice-toxins (o.a. citrinine, citreo-viridine) Penicillium spp. sometimes Aspergillus spp. Penicillium citrinum and Penicillium veridicatum.Rice, wheat, barley and peanuts.Citrinine: LD 50 b for rats, oral = 50 mg/kg.Maximum levels according to Regulation (EC) 1881/2006Citrinine gets inactivated around Temperatures higher than 172 °C; citreoviridine at Temperatures higher than 110 °C. P.Citrinum produces exept citrinine a also a yellowish pigment that becomes fluorescent under UV-light.
Fycotoxins Algea, products (as consequence of the food supply) especially the naturally in plants. Toxic and or unvavorable for the bioavailability of nutrients.Maximum levels according to Regulation (EC) 1881/2006Heat resistant during normal preparation treatments, occuring toxins; solanum-alkaloids in potatoes, glucosinolates in cabbage species and agaritine in mushrooms.