Introduction chemical hazards

We have several HACCP tables. Below you can see the HACCP hazard table we have made concerning the subject’ chemical’. Since this table is very extensive, we recommend using the download below to view the table properly.

Table: possible chemical hazards

Chemical componentFood productLegislationComments
(herbicides, fungicides, insecticides)Vegetables, spices and max. Amount. Acceptance and usage of pesticides are regulated in Regulation (EC) No 396/2005. 
PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), Benzo(a)pyrene.Oils/fats, smoked meat products, aromas etc.Maximum levels according to Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006Formed during combustion processes (baking, roasting, BBQ). Carcinogenic PAHs induce cancer in the lungs and the digestive tract.
Dioxins: Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD’s), Polychlorinated dibenzofurans PCDF and 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD).Meat (through Feed) and , (especially fatty fish such as herring and salmon) and Vegetables, Oils/fats, and eggsMaximum levels according to Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006Formed from chlorinated linkages during heating with low oxygen levels. Carcinogenic for humans and animals above a threshold level.
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs)Meat (through Feed), poultry, fish (especially fatty fish such as herring and salmon), Vegetables, Oils/fats, dairy and eggsMaximum levels according to Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006Carcinogenic for animals and humans. Moreover, it might induce skin disorders, reproductive toxicity and liver diseases. PCBs burn above 1200 °C, are insoluble and are applied as plasticizers, paint, ink, lacquer, glue and insecticides.
Polybrominated diphenyl ethersthrough in fish.
3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD)Hydrolyzed plant-based oil, soy sauce (ketjap).It might be formed during hydrochloric acid treatment of the raw oil to produce the hydrolyzed plant-based oil.
Phthalate-badge-bisphenol-a , plastic interior coating for cansAutoclaving or heating of filled cans
Heavy metals (lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), tin (Ti), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As))Vegetables, spices, herbs, herbs (heavy metals might contaminate food through air, water and soil).Maximum levels according to Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006Cd might occur in Batteries, plastics and paint. Cd might induce lung cancer and kidney . Pb is neurotoxic and could induce anaemia and miscarriages.
Azo dye and similar colourantsspices and herbs: chilli, pepper bell, pepper powder, chilli powder, coarse pepper, cayenne pepper and palm oil.ForbiddenThe importing party’s certificates of are mandatory, and member states conduct random sampling.
Residues: (animal)medicines, antibiotics, anti-microbial , growth promotors and vitamins.MeatForbidden for each drug is, a Maximum Residue Level (MRL) established with a specific accepted amount in herbs, liver, kidney, fat, milk and eggs. The usage of Chloramphenicol and nitrofuran is forbidden in the EU and VS while still accepted in some Asian countries.
Residue: hormonesMeatForbiddenInspection (growth hormones are generally not directly carcinogenic or genotoxic but still contain some ).
AcrylamideFries and toasts
Nitrate/Green VegetablesMaximum levels according to Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006Nitrite forms by heating nitrate. Nitrite is only harmful in an acidic environment since nitrosamines can be formed easily (in the stomach) and, therefore, could cause stomach and liver cancer.
Dimer and polymerized triglycerides ().Frying fatmaximum 16% (max. 27% for polar components)Formed during food processing.
Free fatty acids (FFA)Frying fatThe maximum increase of 4.5; FFA during food processing.
Other contaminantsFrying fat Prepared from waste, as an example: fat from sludge trap, destruction. Material, wastewater etc.
AllergensGeneralRegulation (EU) No 1169/2011Give it extra attention when it is known that cross-contamination is possible at the level.
GMOSoy and maizeRegulation (EU) No 1169/2011Give it extra attention when known that cross-contamination is possible at the supplier level.
LubricantsGeneralForbiddenIt shouldn’t be contaminated through the production of the process.
and disinfectantsGeneralForbiddenIt shouldn’t be contaminated through the production of the process.
RefrigerantsCooled and frozen foodprodcutsForbiddenIt shouldn’t be contaminated through the production of the process.
Components as a consequence of fat oxidation.MEat (products), dairy products (containing average amounts of fat) and every other product known as a “fatty” product.Accepted, no direct consequences for public health.Fat oxidation causes off-flavours of organoleptic characteristics. Through the reaction of oxygen with the formed aldehydes, acetic acid, formic acid and propionic acid can be formed. This induces rancidity.
CaramelisationProducts with sugar
Maillard-reactionProtein-rich productsIt might cause a shortage of essential amino acid Lysine.
Growth promotors: anabolic steroids, categorized into three groups: estrogenic-, androgenic- and progestogenic steroids. Synthetic steroids: ethinylestradiol, diethylstilbestrol (DES), trenbolone, and Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA).MeatEnergy used for the growth of the animal will be focused on manufacturing proteins at the cost of fats.
Growth promotors; Beta-agonists. They are known as clenbuterol, salbutamol and bromobuterol.MeatResponsible for breaking down fats and producing proteins (repartition drugs).
Organotin compounds: monobutyltin, dibutyltin and tributyltin.They are used as stabilizers and mould-resistant substances. Absorbable through the skin.
Mineral oils (MOSH/MOAH/POSH)Almost all food products through migration from or contamination during production.The complex mix of aliphatic hydrocarbons, naphthalene and aromatics. Several are Carcinogenic. Some Synthetic prepared Hydrocarbon oils are considered part of minerals and oils. The most significant polluting sources are cotton burlap bags, plastics, cartons, printing inks, lubricants and recycled fat in animal feed.
CyanideUnprocessed whole, ground, milled, cracked, chopped apricot kernels placed on the market for the final consumerMaximum levels according to Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006Also found in Flaxseed, Cassava, Yam root and Lima .

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