Legislation: Potatoes, vegetables and fruit products

(EC) No 178/2002General principles and requirements of food law establishing the European Food Authority and laying down procedures in matters of food safety
(EC) No 852/2004Food
(EC) No 2073/2005Microbiological criteria for food
(EC) No 396/2005Maximum residue levels of pesticides in or on certain
(EU) No 1169/2011Provision of food to consumers
The legislation table will be renewed: An update will follow soon

Microbiology: potatoes, vegetables and fruit products

Table 1 possible pathogens derived from Hazards Pathogens

ProductB. CereusCamppylob.Cl. Bot.Cl. PerfrE. Coli 0157L. MonoSalmonellaS. AureusV. parahae molyticus
Potatoes, vegetables, fruit+++– * except MAP++

Table 2 Common microbiological hazards

GenusPathogenic speciesGRForm, mobilityOT (C.)T1 (C.)pH-OpH-RaWIllness
Bacilluscereus+Rod (3-5 um length 1 um wide) spore forming, mobileAerobe (sometimes Fa)28,3510,0-48,06.0-7,54,9-9,3>0.91Poisoning (Tox. 1) and infection (Tox. 2)
botulinum seven species categorized into toxins: A, B, C1, D, E, F, G)+Rod (4-8 um long and 0,9-1,2 um wide; type E 0,3-0,7 um wide), spore formingAnear.30-37P: 10-45 NP: 3,3-456,5-7,0P: 4.6-9.0 NP: 5.0-9.0P: >0.95 NP: >0.97Poisoning by this very toxic neurotoxin; is deadly unless it is treated in time.
Clostridiumperfringens (five types categorized on formed enterotoxins: A to E)+Rod (2-8 um long, 1um wide), spore-formingAnear. Low oxygen levels are also possible.43-4515-506.0-7,55,5-8,5> 0.95Infection: toxin forming in the small intestine leads to stomach and intestine such as stomachache, diarrhoea, and low mortality.
Escherichiacoli (also O157:H7)RodFa30-3710-45.5 (EHEC)7.04,4-9,5> 0.95Infection by EHEC group of which E. coli 0157:H7 (hamburger disease) is the most severe; the mortality is around 35%.
monocytogenes (11 species; 3 cause 90% of the infections)+Rod (0,5-2,0um long, 0,5um wide), mobile at 20-25°C.Fa3,0-37,00-457.05-9 (at 4gr. C) 4,4-9,0 (at 30grC)> 0.92Infections of healthy individuals lead to flu . Infants, the Elderly, the ill and pregnant women might get severe symptoms when infected by Listera. (Meningitis, blood poisoning and abortion). In these risk is the mortality 30-50%.
SalmonellaTwo thousand three hundred species that might cause enteritis (stomach inflammation).Rod, sometimes mobileFa35-375,0-45,07.04,0-9,0>0.93Infection: intestinal inflammation. For the elderly, small children and sick, illness can be fatal.
Salmonellatyphus; paratyphusRodFa375,0-45,0>0.93Typhus, paratyphus are the most severe illnesses caused by Salmonella.
Staphylococcusaureus, not all species are pathogenic.+Coc (0.5-1um in diameter), coccus are formed in a grape-like cluster.Fa3710,0-45,06,5- 7,55,2-9,0>0.85 opt: >0.98Toxin results in vomiting and stomachache. Compared with other infections are, the symptoms mild.

Mycotoxins: potatoes, vegetables and fruit products

Table 3 possible mycotoxins, derived Hazard table Mycotoxins

(toxin from fungus)FungusAgricultural raw materials and food productsADI of AWI (ug/kg body weight)EffectsLegislatory regulationsComments
Ochratoxin A&BAspergillus Penicillium speciesBarley, rye, wheat, rice, maize, peanuts, Brazilian , peppers, Cotton seed, and Cheese.AWI of toxin A: 0,112 (JECFA, 1990) limit: 10 ug/kg food product. LD 50 (rat, oral) van toxin A: 20 mg/kgMaximum levels according to Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006Toxin A is more toxic than B. In the Netherlands, such low amounts found that the risk is perceived as very low and therefore is there no norm. Growth fungus is possible in a temperate climate. Toxin A is inactivated at > 221 °C
PatulinApergillus clavatus;
Penicillium roqueforti;
Penicillium expansum;
Penicillium patulum
Apples, apple juice, moulded fruits, grains, cheese and sausageAWI: 7 (JECFA, 1989)Acute toxic (damaging of lungs, brains, liver and kidneys); carcinogenic effects are not found (IARC, 1985).Maximum levels according to Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006At of apple juice into Cider and through vitamin C takes destruction place. The Patulin content can be an indication for the handling of GMP guidelines (to establish that rotten apples are not used).

Viruses and rickettsia of vegetable products

Table 4 Viruses, Rickettsia derived from Hazard table Viruses, Rickettsia, prions

, RickettsiaFoodsMIDDisease
Norwalk-like (Norovirus) viruses (part of the Calici-virus family.Before consumption, shellfish and washed fruits and vegetables are food products without heat treatment.10-100 (very low)Infection caused explosive diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting and fever. Children mainly vomit. Incubation period: 24-48 hours. The duration disease is two days. Medication is not available and necessary. All consumers are prone to infections. Groups with decreased immunity (YOPIs) have an increased risk. Infected people stay three days after being symptom-free contagious. Infected people stay three days after being symptom-free contagious.Do not use that faeces might contaminate from producing fresh food products. Heat one and a half minutes at 90 °C to inactivate viruses. Improve hygiene of the whole . Staff who are probably contaminated should conduct different work, even after the disappearance of the symptoms. Inhibit virus outbreaks in places where contaminated shellfish are being cultivated. Development of microbiological criteria for viruses.NLV viruses are very contagious. Toxins are not being formed. This type of virus could cause outbreaks in places where humans live in close communities. Days can survive when a product is heated insufficiently. There is no legislation for the inhibition of viral food infections. The virus needs bacteria to reproduce.

Chemistry: potatoes, vegetables and fruit products

Table 5 possible chemical hazards

pesticides (pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, insecticides)vegetables, spices and max. content. The authorization and use of pesticides is regulated in the Plant Protection Products and Biocides Act (Wgb) and Regulation (EC) No. 396/2005Low deviation percentages were found for cultivation.
heavy metals (lead, cadmium, tin, mercury, arsenic)vegetables, spices and herbs, grains, meat (heavy metals can get into food through water, air and soilMaximum levels according to Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006CD can occur in batteries, plastics and paint. CD can cause lung cancer and kidney dysfunction. PB can affect the nervous system, cause anaemia and miscarriages
Azo-dyes and related molecules (ao-para-red and-sudan-red 1 to 4 )spices and herbs Chili pepper, paprika powder, chili powder, coarse pepper, cayenne pepper, palm oilprohibitedCertificates of analysis required from the importer and random sampling by the Member States.
Nitrate / nitritegreen vegetablemax. contentnitrite is formed when nitrate is heated. Nitrite is harmless in a basic environment but in an acidic environment, nitrosamines are formed (in the stomach) and can cause stomach and liver cancer
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