Introduction zoonoses

We have several HACCP risk tables. Below you can see the HACCP variation table that we have composed concerning the subject: Zoonoses . As this table is very extensive, we recommend using the download below to view the table properly.

What are zoonoses?

Zoonoses are infections that can be transmitted from animals to humans.

Table zoonoses

(Micro)organismsOther namesCausative agentReservoir and characteristicsWay of infectionPresence (in the Netherlands)
Campylobacter-jejuniCampylobacter jejuni is a that excretes a cholera-like toxin and causes stomach and stomach mucosa inflammation (gastroenteritis).Campylobacter jejuni is present in a lot of animals such as chickens, ducks, geese, turkeys, pigs, sheep, bovines, cats and dogs. In nature found animals: Gnaw animals ( and rats), and mainly birds form a natural reservoir of C. jejuni. Campylobacter is also in other primates found.Campylobacter is the main bacterial inducer of diarrhea. The symptoms of gastroenteritis are then caused, by several different intestinal infections caused by other . On very rare occasions an infection with Campylobacter is fatal.Direct contact with animals, is the main infection source for humans. Insufficiently heated chicken meat. Shellfish living in faecal contaminated water can be infected with campylobacter. Moreover, unpasteurized and drinking water could be contaminated.Campylobacter jejuni is one of the biggest bacterial causes of gastrointestinal inflammation in the Netherlands (more than 300.000 cases).
Chlamydia-psittaciParrot disease, OrnithosisThere are several cultures known of Chlamydia psittaci, these have often a certain host preference. This means that they are able to infect a select group of animals.It is present in birds and several mammals (sheep, goats and bovines)Acute lung problems with inefficient coughing and lung infiltration. Next to that are fever, cold shivers, heavy head and or muscle ache and sometimes even mucus with blood traces. Lastly, abortions could be caused when pregnant.Parrots, parakeets and doves could be carriers and carry the disease without becoming ill. takes mainly place by inhaling aerosols, which contain the excretion fluids of birds. Humans could also become contaminated after contact with infected goats and sheep.The amount of reported cases in humans is lower than 100.
Coxiella burnetiiQ-Fever
Trichophytum verrucosum-t. mentagrophytus microsporum canisDermatomycosisRingworm,Different pathogens of dermatomycosis: Trichophytum verrucosum, T. mentagrophytus and Microsporum canis.Mammals (solipeds, horses, gnaw animals), but also primates and ferrets.Ring-shaped skin inflammation, yeast infection of skin, hair and nails.Contact with contaminated animals or contaminated .The amount of new cases is every year between 1-99.
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiaeErysipeloidCaused by the Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae.In humans, it could cause Erysipeloid (skin infections), and sometimes joint inflammation and heart valve inflammations are exceptional.In humans, it could cause Erysipeloid (skin infections), sometimes joint inflammation and heart valve inflammations are exceptional.Contamination could take place through direct contact with ill animals and carriers. Moreover, animal-related and materials could induce the disease. The pathogen is outside the contagious organism. For immersion liquids from sheep come in direct contact with skin scratches.Yearly new cases are between 100 and 1000.
Escherichia coli (e-coli)Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli EH EC, VTEC, 0157:H7, Hamburger disease.E. coli is part of the Enterobacteriaceae family, genus Escherichia. These bacteria survive months in the soil and weeks in water (survive better at low temperatures).Bovines (especially milk cattle) are carriers of these nonpathogenic intestinal bacteria without becoming ill. Also in sheep is EHEC isolated from the intestines. There are two cases of EHEC isolation from horses.An EHEC infection could be without symptoms, mild diarrhea, or bloody diarrhea. Hemorrhagic colitis is characterized by the sudden appearance of heavy stomach cramps, sometimes with vomiting, and without fever. After 24 hours follows watery diarrhea that becomes bloody after one to two days. The symptoms stay generally between two to nine days (with four days on average) and disappear naturally. Contamination with the Coli bacteria could lead to the disease HUS, of which the consequences could be very severe. HUS could be an example that leads to the breaking down of blood cells and damage to the kidneys, the worst consequence is paralysis.Consumption of insufficiently heated beef (on a barbecue). Milk consumption, (surface) water, and vegetables (radish) are associated with EHEC infections. EHEC 0157 seems to be acid-tolerant. Transmission through contact with (manure from) contaminated cattle is considerable. Lastly swimming in contaminated water is a source of infection. Transmission from human to human is important, especially in families and daycare.In slaughterhouses, 10% of the researched bovines are EHEC proven. One in ten examined farms had the presence of infection between 0-22%. Specific data about infections of HUS and HC is still needed. Estimations show that the Netherlands has 30 new HUS patients every year. In some cases, HC is a multiplying facture of 20 used resulting in 610 per year.
HantavirusHantavirusOrthohantavirus, BunyaviridaeOrthohantavirus is part of the so called `hemorrhagic fevers'. In is the most common for the `Nephropathia epidemica', a relatively mild species in relation to other forms of the orthohantavirus.Gnaw animalsThe symptoms are apparent approximately one to four weeks after contamination. The symptoms could be fever possibly above 40 °C or shivers (flu-syndrome), headache, muscle or back pain, and possibly sight problems and/or eye aches, very typical but not lasting. Individuals who had the Orhohantavirus become resistant since they have developed antibodies.The contamination happens in airways, by inhalation of the virus, particles present from a bite or faeces of contaminated gnaw animals. The infected gnaw animal itself does not get the disease itself but stays a carrier of the virus. Therefore the faeces excreted by those carriers throughout their whole lives are the biggest source of . Cases of orthohantavirus take place when the local population of gnaws animals is in high numbers and simultaneously contaminated by the virus. Contaminated soil and dead gnaw animals could also function as sources of infection. There is no proof that humans could infect each other with the orthohantavirus.The illness is found more in males than in females and it is rarely present in children younger than 10 years. The disease is picked up in bushy areas.
Influenza virusInfluenzaFluInfluenza is caused by the influenza virus. There are three types: A, B, and C. Actually, flu is a different name for influenza, an acute infectious disease that affects the airways. In daily usage flu is the collective name for several diseases.There are indications that pigs and other animals such as birds and seals function as reservoirs for influenza A viruses.The symptoms could be deviating from asymptomatic to fatal. Asymptomatic influenza starts with sudden fever, cold shivers, overall sickness, tracheobronchitis, sore throat, headache, muscle ache and fatigue. Acute stadia lasts three to seven days. As a complication viral pneumonia takes place. This can be caused by total pulmonary edema. These complications are partly responsible for the death caused by influenza. Moreover, a secondary bacterial infection (mainly S. aureus) from the pharynx could be fatal.Transmission takes place by droplet infection, thus respiratory and indirect contamination through contaminated materials. Human gatherings cause relatively more infections.
Leptospira interrogansLeptospirosis (Weil's disease)Syndrome/disease of Milkings feverLeptospirs are thin mobile spirochaete, part of the leptospira interrogans. There are more than 200 species.Gnaw animals, especially rats, mice, cattle (even-toed ungulates) and dogs could be carriers. Ferrets could also get leptospiroses.The symptoms of Leptospirosis could deviate from mild to severe characteristics (Weil syndrome). The fever from bovines has similar symptoms in humans as the normal flu. Symptoms of Weil's disease could be a sudden heavy headache, fever, muscle and joint aches, photosensitiveness, nausea and vomiting. Sometimes it can be liver and kidney problems such as jaundice. The recovery in humans takes a long time from six months to a year unless it is treated with antibiotics in the early stages.Gnaw animals especially rats form an important reservoir for all kinds of serotypes. Carriers themselves do not necessarily have to suffer because of the infection. The infection route goes from urine, materials, or soil to injuries or mucous membranes that function as entrances in humans. The biggest risk group is members with a lot of animal-based contacts (rats and cattle) or indirect through contaminated materials and water.The number of new incidents are yearly between 1 and 99.
RabiesvirusRabiesRabies virus comes from the family Rhabdoviridae, genus Lyssavirus. This family has four known serotypes of which two relevant in the Netherlands: (I) the classical rabies virus present in foxes (serotype 1) and (II) The European Bat Lyssa (EBL)- virus present at-bats (close correlated to serotype 4, the Duvenhage virus present in bats).Rabies is primarily a disease for mammals; very prone to develop are: foxes, wolfs, and jackals, and relatively prone are bats, hamsters, marmots, cats and bunnies. The least prone to it are dogs, sheep, goats and horses. In addition, rabies is also found in ferrets and the risk of human contamination is the highest in countries where dogs are endemically contaminated with rabies.Rabies can be divided into two types based on clinical symptoms: rabies furiosa and rabies paralytica. Patients with the first type have hyperactivity and cramp symptoms while the paralytical progressive paralysis takes place. The rabies paralytica is sometimes wrongly diagnosed as the Guillain-Barré syndrome. In the course of the disease, different stages could be distinguished: incubation time, prodromal phase (prior to the disease), neurological phase, coma, and death.A bite from contaminated animals (dog, cat, fox, cattle, bat or deer) or through small injuries (skin lesions) saliva can reach subcutaneous tissues and muscles. Next to that, the infection can take place through healthy mucous membranes. Contamination from human to human is very rare but animal-based cross-contamination takes place by bites or suckling.In the Netherlands the bats in 1987 were the only rabies reservoir mainly carried by the serotine bat.
In the prodromal phase, the symptoms are unspecific such as shivers, fever, sickness, lack of appetite, nausea, vomiting and headache. The place of injury could be itchy and painful with possible proliferative consequences of the virus in sensory nerves. If the patient gets these symptoms the prognosis is very bad. In the neurological phase, the symptoms are such as hyperactivity, neck stiffness, priapism, convulsions and paralysis. Sometimes the paralysis is obvious around the bite area. In around half of the patients aerophobia or hydrophobia takes place with possible foam forming around the mouth. At around 20% of the patients rabies paralytica is the dominant.
Eventually, the patient goes into a coma. The respiratory organs get involved during the paralysis and the breathing becomes irregular and apnoea could take place (temporarily unnatural respiratory pauses). In general leads to neurological, respiratory, or cardiovascular complications to death. Nonetheless, there are three occasions where humans survived the disease by being vaccinated after the bite.
SalmonellaSalmonellosisThere are a vast amount of species that again could be divided into more than 2000 varieties of serotypes.Gnaw animals, insects, birds, frogs, cattle, monkeys, reptiles and ferrets. Humans can be contaminated by contact with (faeces of) cats and dogs. Salmonella bacteria could be present in the intestinal tract of humans, warm-blooded animals, surface water, and in soil. Food products could be contaminated after contact with pests and insects. This way meat, poultry, dairy products (especially unpasteurized milk and cheese), shrimp, and frog legs could contain Salmonella.S. enteritidis causes gastroenteritis (stomach and intestinal mucosa infection). This is mostly an innocent mild disease that disappears naturally in healthy individuals after several days. In general, the disease is limited to the stomach and intestine area but when it transfers to the blood it could induce blood poisoning with severe complications.The bacteria come through contaminated surface water or the hands of a Salmonella carrier in food products. Salmonella enteritidis is for some years one of the most common salmonella infections in humans caused by eating contaminated meat and eggs.The estimate is that 50.000 infections are caused by salmonella.
Streptobacillus moniliformisRat bite diseaseThe bacteria S. moniliformis.Gnaw animals, ferrets, cats, and dogs. S. moniliformis could be cultivated from the nasopharynx in healthy rats.The symptoms in humans are unspecific but untreated rat bites could become fatal. The main symptoms are headache, fever, nausea, skin rash, and paining joints.Through bites from rats and other already mentioned animals.
Clostridium tetaniTetanusTetanus is caused by Clostridium tetani, an anaerobic, gram-positive, spore-forming bacillus.All animalsThe period of infection until the beginning of the symptoms could variate from one day until several months, although the incubation time is generally less than two weeks. The shorter the incubation time the more severe the disease. In most cases, stiffness of the facial muscles is the first symptom and it to muscle spasms. Degradation of the pharynx and respiratory muscles leads to respiratory deficiencies. In later stages, limbs could become affected with a fully developed clinical picture of generalized muscle spasms (tetany). Full recovery takes four to six weeks. Untreated cases could have a mortality rate of 70% depending on age, the severity of the disease, and the availability of intensive care.Contamination takes place through injuries (burns, pinpricks) that come into contact with street , soil, faeces and dust.
Trichophytum verrucosum-t. mentagrophytus microsporum canisTuberculosis (TBC)Mycobacterium bovisThe three most common main mycobacteria are M. bovis (cattle, dogs, boars, monkeys), M. avium (birds, boars, sheep, monkeys), M. tuberculosis (humans, monkeys, cattle, dogs, boars, parrots). It is also present in badgers but not in the Netherlands. All three types are able to cause the disease in humans and monkeys, but M. Tuberculosis is the most common. Old-world apes are more prone to develop Tuberculosis than new-world apes. Apes could get tuberculosis in areas where they are in contact with humans and the disease can spread rapidly in isolated areas. For humans, lung Tuberculosis is the most common with nodular inflammations in the lungs and skin. Moreover: loss of appetite, weight loss, tiredness, fever, colds, and strongly declined body conditions. On the other side, it could be asymptomatic for years.Inhalation of contaminated particles or contact with contaminated animals through coughing for example.Amount of yearly new cases is between 1 and 99. The Netherlands is officially free from Tuberculosis (livestock farming). Humans have mainly M. tuberculosis.
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