Introduction zoonoses

We have several HACCP tables. Below you can see the HACCP variation table that we have composed concerning the subject: Zoonoses . As this table is very extensive, we recommend using the download below to view the table properly.

What are zoonoses?

Zoonoses are infections that can be transmitted from animals to humans.

Table zoonoses

(Micro)organismsDiseaseOther namesCaustive agentReservoirSymptoms and characteristicsWay of infectionPresence (in the Netherlands)
Campylobacter-jejuniCampylobacter jejuni is a bacteria that excretes a cholera-like toxine and causes a stomach and stomach muscosa inflammation (gastro-enteritis).Campylobacter jejuni is present in a lot of animals such as: chickens, ducks, geese, turkey, pigs, sheep, bovine, cats and dogs. In nature found animals: Gnaw animals ( and rats), and mainly birds form a natural reservoir of C. jejuni. Campylobacter is also in other primates found.Campylobacter is the main bacterial inducer of diarrhoea. The symptoms of gastro-enteritis are then caused, several different than intestinal infections are caused by other pathogens. In very rare occasions is an infection with Campylobacter fatal.Direct with animals, the main infection source for humans insufficient heated chicken meat. Next to that could living in feacel contaminated water be infected with campilobacter. Moreover unpasturized and drinking water could be contaminated.Campylobacter jenuni is one of the biggest bacterial cause of gastrointestinal inflammation in the netherlands (more than 300.000 cases).
Chlamydia-psittaciParrot disease, OrnithosisThe bacteria Chlamydia psittaci. There are several cultures known of Chlamidia psittaci, these have often a certain host preferance. This means that they are able to infect a select group of animals.It is present at birds and several mammals (sheeps, goats and bovines)Acute lung problems with inefficient couching and lunginfiltration. Next to that are fever, cold shivers, heavy head and or muscle ache and sometimes even mucus with blood traces. Lastly Abortus could be caused when pregnant.Parrots, parkeets and doves could be carriers and carry the disease without becoming ill. Contamination takes mainly place by inhaling of aerosols, wich contain the excretion fluids of birds. Humans could also become contaminated after contact with abortive goats and sheeps.The amount of reported cases in humans is lower than 100.
Coxiella burnetiiQ-Fever
Trichophytum-verrucosum-t.-mentagrophytus-microsporum-canisDermatomycosisRingworm,Different pathogens of Dermatomycosis are: Trichophytum verrucosum, T. mentagrophytus and Microsporum canis.Mammals (solipeds, horses, gnawanimalsn en lagomorphs), but also primates and ferrets.Ring shaped skin inflammation, yeast infection of skin, hair and nails.Contact with contaminated animals or contaminated materials.The amount of new cases is every year between 1-99.
Erysipelothrix-rhusiopathiaeErysipeloidCaused by the bacteria Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae.Home an wild living animals, especially birds, mammals (Bovine, goat, sheep) and water animals. and shellfish could carry the micro-organism.In humans could it cause Erysipeloid isroos (skininfections), sometimes joint inflammation and heart valve inflammations are exceptional.Contamination could take place by direct contact with ill animals and carriers. More over animal related products and materials could induce the disease. The pathogen is namely outside the organisms catageous. As immersion liquids for sheeps that come in direct contact with skin scratches.Yearly new cases are between 100 and 1000.
Escherichia-coli-e-coliEnterohemorragic Escherichia coli EH EC, VTEC, 0157:H7, Hamburger disease.E. coli is part of the familie of the Enterobacteriaceae genus Escherichia. This bacteria survives months in the soil and weeks in water (it survives better at low ).Bovines (especially milk cattle) are carriers of these non pathogenic intestinal bacteria without becoming ill. Also at sheeps is EHEC isolated from the intestines. There are two cases of EHEC isolation from horses.A EHEC infection could be without symptoms, mild diarrhea or with bloody diarrhea. Hemorrhagic colitis is characterised by suddent appereance of heavy stomache cramps, sometimes with vomitting, without fever. After 24 hours follows a wattery diarrhea that becomes bloody after one to two days. The symptoms stay generally between two to nine days (with four days as average) and dissapear naturally. Contaminatino with the colibacteria could lead to the disease HUS, of wich the consequences could be very severe. HUS could be as example lead to braking down of bloodcells and damage to the kidneys, the worst consequence is paralysis.Consumption of unsufficient heated beef (on a barbecue). Next to beef is Milk consumption, (surface) water and vegetables (radish) assocated with EHEC-infections. EHEC 0157 seems to be acid tolerant. Transmission through contact with (manure from) contaminated cattle is considerably, lastly could swimming in the contaminated water be the source of infection. Transmission from human to human is important, Especially in families and daycare.In slaughterhouses is in 10% of the researched bovines EHEC proved. One in ten examined farms was the presence of infection between 0-22%. Specific about infections of HUS and HC is still needed. Estimations are that the Nehterlands gets 30 new HUS patients every year. In some cases of HC is a multiplying facture of 20 used resulting to 610 per year.
HantavirusHantavirusOrthohantavirus, BunyaviridaeOrthohantavirus is part of the so called `hemorrhagic fevers’. In is the most common for the `Nephropathia epidemica’, a relatively mild species in relation to other forms of the orthohantavirus.Gnaw animalsThe symptoms are apperantly in approximately one to four weeks after contamination. The symptoms could be: fever possible above 40 °C or shivers (flu-syndrome), head ache, msucle or back pain, possibly sight problems and or eye aches, very typical but not lasting. Individuals who had the Orhohantavirus become ressistant since they have developed antibodies.The contamination happens in airways, by inhalation of the virus, particles present from a bite or feaces of contaminated gnaw animals. The infected gnaw animal itself do not get the disease themselves but stay carrier of the virus. Therefore are the Feaces excreted by those carriers through their whole lives the biggest source of virusses. Cases of orthohantavirus take place when the local population gnaw animals are in high numbers and simultaniously contaminated by the virus. Contaminated Soil and death gnaw animals could also function as source of infection. There is no proof that humans could infect eachother with the orthohantavirus.The illness is found more in males than in females and it is rarely present in children younger than 10 years. The disease is picked up in bushy areas.
InfluenzavirusInfluenzaFluInfluenza is caused by the influenzavirus. There are thre types: A, B en C. Actually is flu a different name of influenza, a acute infectious disease that affects the airways. In daily parlance is flu the collective name for several diseases.There are indications that pigs and other animals such as birds and seals funciton as reservoir for influenza A-virusses.The symptoms could be deviating from asymptomatic to fatal. A symptomatic influenza starts with sudden fever, cold shivers, overall malaise, tracheobronchitis, sore throat, head ache, muscle ache and fatigue. The acute stadia lasts three to seven days. As complication could a viral pneumonia take place, reoubted by its respiratory failure. This can be caused by a total pulmonary edema. These complications are partly responsible for the death caused by influenza. Moreover a secundary bacterial infection (mainly S. aureus) from the pharynx could be fatal.Transmission takes place by droplet infection, thus a respiratory and indirect contamination through contaminated materials. Humanly gathering cause relatively more infections.
Leptospira-interrogansLeptospirosis (milk fever)Syndrome/disease of Weil, Milking feverLeptospirs are thin mobile spirochaete, part of the leptospira interrogans. There are more than 200 species.Gnaw animals, especially rats, mice, cattle (even-toed ungulates) and dogs could be carriers. Ferrets could also get leptospiroses.The symptoms of Leptospirosis could deviate from mild to severe characteristics (Weil syndrome). Milkings fever from bovines have in humans the symptoms similar to a normal flu. Symptoms of Milkings disease could be suddenly heavy head ache, fever, muscel and joint aches, photosensitiveness, nausea and vomitting. Sometimes are liver and kidney problems such as jaundice found. The recovery in humans takes long deviating from six months to a year unless it is treated with antibiotics in early stages.Gnaw animals especially rats form an important reservoir for all kinds of serotypes. Carriers themselves do not necessary have to suffer because of the infection. The infection route goes from urine, materials or soil to injuries or muscous membranes that function as entrance in humans. The biggest riskgroup are staffmembers with a lot of animal based contact (rats and cattle) or indirect through contaminated materials and water.The amount of new is yearly between 1 and 99.
RabiesvirusRabiesRabies virus comes from the family Rhabdoviridae, genus Lyssavirus. This family has four known serotypes of which two relevant in the Netherlands: (I) the classical rabies virus present in foxes (serotype 1) and (II) The european Bat Lyssa (EBL)- virus present at bats (close correlated to serotype 4, the Duvenhage virus present in African bats).Rabies is primary a disease for mamals: very prone to develop are: a foxes, wolfs, jackals and relatively prone are bats, hamsters, marmots, cats and bunnies. The least prone to it are dogs, sheeps, goats and horses. In addition rabies is also found in ferrets and the risk of human contamination is the highest in countries where dogs are endemically contaminated with rabies.Rabies can by divided in two types based on clinical symptoms: rabies furiosa en rabies paralytica. Patients with the first type have hyperactivity and cramp symptoms while the paralytical a progressive paralyisis takes place. The rabies paralytica is sometimes wrongly diagnosed as the Guillain-Barré syndrom. In the course of disease could different stages be distinguished: incubationtime, prodromal phase (prior to the diseas), neurological phase, coma and death.Through a bite from contaminated animals (dog, cat, fox, cattle, bat or deer) or through small injuries (skin laesions) can saliva reach subcutaneous tissues and muscles. Next to that can infection take place through healthy mucous membranes. Contamination from human to human is very rare but animal based crosscontamination takes place by bites or suckling.In the Netherlands are bats since 1987 the only rabies reservoir with mainly carried by the serotine bat.
In the prodomal phase are the symptomen unspecific such as shivers, fever, malaise, lack of appetite, nausea, vomiting and head ache. The place of injury could be itchy and paining with possible proliferative consequence of the virus in sensoric nerves. If the patient gets these symptoms is the prognosis very bad. In the neurological phase are the symptoms such as hyperactivity, neck stiffness, priapism, convulsions and paralysis. Sometimes is the paralysis obvious around the area of the bite. At around half of the patients takes aerophoby or hydrophoby place with possible foam forming around the mouth. At around 20% of the patients is rabies paralytica the dominating.
SalmonellaSalmonellosisThere are a vast amount of species that again could be divided in more than 2000 varieties of serotypes.Gnaw animals, insects, birds, frogs, cattle, monkeys, reptiles and ferrets. Humans can be contaminated by contact with (feaces of) cats and dogs. The Salmonella-bacteria could be present in the intestinal tract of humans, warm-blooded animals, surface water and in soil. Food products could be contaminated after contact with pests and insects. This way could meat, , products (especially unpasturized milk and chees), shrips and frog legs contain salmonalla.S. enteritidis causes gastro-enteritis (stomach and intestinal mucosa infection). This is mostly a innocent mild disease that disseapears naturally in healthy individuals after several days. In general is the disease limited to the stomach and intestine area but when it transfers to the blood could it induce blood poisoning with severe complications.The bacteria comes through contaminated surface water or hands of a Salmonella carrier in food products. Salmonella enteritidis is since some years one of the most common salmonella infaction at humans caused by eating contaminated meat and eggs.Estimated is that 50.000 infections are caused by salmonella.
Streptobacillus-moniliformisRat bite diseaseDe bacterie S. moniliformis.Gnaw animals, ferrets cats and dogs. S. moniliormis could be cultuvated from the nasopharynx in heatlhy rats.The symptoms are in humans unspecific but untreated rat bites could become fatal. The main symptoms are headache, fever, nauseaa, skin rash and paining joints.through bites from rats and other already mentioned animals.
Clostridium-tetaniTetanusTetanus is caused by tetani, a anaerobic, gram positive, spore forming bacillus.All animalsDe period of injury until the begin of the symptoms could variate from one day until several months, altough the incubation time is generally less than two weeks. the shorter the incubation time the more severe the disease eventually. In most cases is stifness of the facial muscles the first symptom and to muscle spasms. Degradation of the epharynx and respiratory muscles lead to respiratory defficiencies. In later stages could limbs become affected with a fully developed clinical picture generalized muscle spasms (tetany). Full recovery takes for patients surviving this stage four to six weeks. Untreated cases could have a mortality rate of 70% depending on age, severity of the diseaseI and the availability of a intensive .Contamination takes place through injuries (burns, pinpricks) that come in to contact with street , soil, feaces and dust.
Trichophytum-verrucosum-t.-mentagrophytus-microsporum-canisTuberculosis (tbc)Mycobacterium bovisThe three most common main mycobacteria are: M. bovis (cattle, dogs, boars, monkeys), M. avium (birds, boars, sheeps, monkeys), M. tuberculosis (humans, monkeys, cattle, dogs, boars, parrots). It is also present in badgers but not in the Netherlands. All three types are able to cause the disease at humans and monkeys, but M. Tuberculosis is the most common. Old world apes are more prone to develop Tuberculosis than new world apes. Apes could get tuberculosis in areas where they are in contact with humans and the disease can spread rapidly in isolated areas.For humans is lung Tuberculosis the most common with nodular inflammations in lungs and skin. Morover: loss of appetite, weight loss, tiredness, fever, colds and strongly declined body conditions. On the otherside could it be assymptomatic for years.Inhalation of contaminated particles or contact with contaminated animals through coughing as example.Amount of yearly new cases are between 1 and 99. The Netherlands is officilly free from Tuberculosis (livestock farming). Humans have mainly M. tuberculosis.

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