Introduction

We have several HACCP tables. Below you see the HACCP variation table which we have composed concerning the subject ‘Other biotoxins’. Since this table is very extensive, we recommend using the download below to view the table properly.

What are biotoxins?

Marine biotoxins are produced by certain species of algae and can then accumulate in filter-feeding , such as mussels, scallops and oysters. Consumption of contaminated shellfish can cause severe poisoning symptoms, such as memory loss, paralysis, diarrhoea and vomiting.

Table

Name poisonOriginFood The lethal dose (ug)Illness measurementsComments
CiquateraOne cell based sea plant or dino-flagellate: Gaberdiscus toxicus both living in tropical reefs that directly consumed plants or indirect through other fish.Neurotoxin: paralysis could result in death, however the mortality is low (2-7%); illness could last long and the incubation time is around 30 hours. of tropic fish.
ScombroidMicrobiologic degradation of histidine to histamine in fish.Mackerel fish(Mackerel, sardines and tuna).Allergic reaction. Incubation: 10-90 minutes.fish should be stored cold ( below 10 °C).Toxin is heat stable.
amnesic-shellfish-poison-aspAlgea (diatom from the Nitzschia punges species).Accumulation in shellfish.Memory loss, sometimes lasting.Inhibit growth of algea that can produce the toxic components.Toxin is heat stable. Only at the American and Canadian east coast.
Paralytic-shellfish-poison-psp {paralysis}Algea (Dinoflagellaat)Accumulation in shellfish.500-5000 (humans). 0,3 (mices die after 5-7 minutes)Toxin blocks nerve transmission Mortality: 1-20%. Incubation: 1-30 min.Inhibit growth of algea that can produce the toxic components.Toxin is heat stable. Algea is not located in the Dutch waters yet, altough it can grow in temperate climates.
Diarrhetic-shellfish-poison-dspAlgea (dinoflagellaat).Accumulation in shellfish.50 (mild symptoms based on okadaic acid)Dirrhea, stomach ache, vomitting. Incubation time is between 30 min and several hours.Inhibit the growth of algae that can produce the toxic components.Toxin is heat stable. Algae is incidental encountered in the Dutch waters.
Nerutoxic-shellfish-poison-nspAlg (dinoflagellaat); high concentrations could colour the sea red (red tide).Accumulation in shellfish.10 (deadly for mouse)Blocks nerve transmission. Rarely deadly. Incubation time is two minutes to several hours.Inhibit growth of algea that can produce the toxic components.Toxin is heat stable and living in Subtropical waters.
Biogenic-aminen-histaminePlants, animals and microbesAlmost all food products high in proteins. Histamine is formed from histide by enzyms mainly from the Enterobacteriaceae.Influences physiological processes in the body. Consumption of biogenic amines could lead to poisoning. Symptoms: nausea, stuffiness, palpipations, eczema, unnatural blood pressure and headache.Often present in fish as histamine, symptom similar to food poisoning.