Table 1 possible derived from Hazards Pathogens

B. CereusCamppylob.Cl. Bot.Cl. PerfrE. Coli 0157L. MonoSalmonellaS. AureusV. parahae molyticus
Potatoes, vegetables, fruit+++– * except MAP++

Microbiology

Table 2 Common microbiological hazards

PathogensGRO2T (1)pHMin. AwInc, TimeDurationDRVV / VISymptomsFoods
Bacillus cereus+fa5-505-90.920.5-6 hours24 hours+/- 10 µg / kg per body weightVVLook like S. AureusRice, starchy products, puddings, sauces, herbs, spices, dairy
8-24 hours1-2 days> 100 000 / gVIResembles C. perfringens, vegetable dish, soup sauce, pudding, (spices)
Clostridium bot.+anaer10-504.6-80.9412-36 hours (Sometimes longer)1 day to few months0.005-0.1VVDifficulty swallowing, talking, breathing, seeing double(canned) preserves, garlic in oil, vacuum packed, meal components, 12 concept
Clostridium bot. non-proteolytic5-455-80.970.1-0.5ug(damage to the nervous system), death
Clostridium perfringers+anaer15-505-80.958-24 hours1 day1 000 000 – 100 000 000 / gVVStomach cramps, diarrheaMeat dishes. soup (herbs), roast
E. coli O157fa5-504-90.963-4 days2 – 5 days10-100VIBloody diarrhea, of HUSBeef, hamburger, raw milk cheese, apple cider, sprouts
Listeria monocytogenes+fa0-454.5-90.902 days to 4 weeksunknown> 1 000> 1 000 000VIFever, septicemia, meningitis, miscarriageRaw milk cheese, smoked fish, cooked meats, salad
Salmonella Enteritidisfa5-504-90.948 – 72 hours1 – 3 days> 100 000 (sometimes 10)VIDiarrhea, nausea, vomiting, headache, fever, stomach pain, eggs, raw meat, milk, vegetables
Staphylococcus aureus+fa5-454-90.860.5 – 6 hours1-3 days1-25 µg (100 000 CFU / g)VVNausea, vomiting, stomach painRaw milk cheese, cooked meats, whipped cream

Table 3 possible mycotoxins, derived Hazard table Mycotoxins

Mycotoxins (toxin from fungus)Fungus {1}Agricultural raw / FoodstuffsADI or AWI (ug / kg body weight)EffectsRemarks
ochratoxin-a
ochratoxin-b
Aspergillus ochraceus; Penicillium viridicatum; Penicillium purpures-cens; Penicillium verrucosumBarley, Rye, Wheat, Rice, Corn, Peanuts, Brazilian Nuts, Peppers, Cottonseed, CheeseAWI of toxin A: 0.112 (JECFA, 1990) Limit value: 10 µg / kg food. LD 50 (rat, oral) of toxin A: 20 mg / kgAcute: damage to kidneys and liver; possible renal carcinogen (already shown in rats), teratogenic.Toxin A is more toxic than B. In the Netherlands, such low levels are found that the risk is small → no norm. growth is possible in a temperate climates. Toxin A is inactivated at T> 221 o C
patulinApergillus clavatus; Penicillium; roqueforti Penicillium expansum; Penicillium patulumApple, apple juice, mouldy fruits, cereals, cheese, sausageAWI: 7 (JECFA, 1989)Acutely toxic (damage to lungs, brain, liver, kidneys); carcinogenic activity not demonstrated (IARC, 1985)During apple juice to cider and by vitamin C destruction takes place. Dutch research has not shown any carcinogenicity → standard not required. Patulin content can be an indication for GMP guidelines (no rotten apples used).

Table 4 Viruses, Rickettsia derived from Hazard table Viruses, Rickettsia, prions

, RickettsiaOriginFoodsMIDDisease
Notes
Norwalk-like Viruses (belongs to the family of Calici virusesFoods that are not heated for consumption, scale and shellfish and washed vegetables and fruits diamond10-100 (very low)o Infection causes explosive diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting and fever.
o Vomiting mainly occurs in children. Incubation time: 24-48 hours. Duration of clinical picture: 2 days.
o Medication is not available but also not necessary.
o All consumers are susceptible to infection.
o Groups with reduced resistance (YOPIs) are at extra risk.
o Infected people remain contagious for approx. 3 days after the end of symptoms.
o Do not use possibly faecal contaminated water in the production of fresh food.
o Heating at 90 ° C for 1.5 minutes inactivates viruses.
o Improve throughout the food chain.
o who are (possibly) infected must temporarily perform other work, even a few days after the symptoms disappear. Curbing the spread of the virus in those areas where infected shellfish are farmed.
o Development of microbiological quality criteria for viruses.
o NLV viruses are highly contagious. There are no toxins.
o These types of viruses can cause an explosion, especially in institutions where many people live close to each other.
o NLVs can survive well if a product is not heated.
o There are no for reducing viral foodborne infections.
o Viruses need to multiply.

Chemistry

Table 5 possible chemical hazards

SubstanceFoodLegalRemarks
pesticides (pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, insecticides)vegetables, spices and herbsmax. content. The authorization and use of is regulated in the Plant Protection Products and Biocides Act (Wgb) and Regulation (EC) No. 396/2005Low deviation percentages were found for Dutch cultivation.
heavy metals (lead, cadmium, tin, mercury, arsenic)vegetables, spices and herbs, grains, meat (heavy metals can get into food through water, air and soilEC 1881/2006CD can occur in batteries, plastics and paint. CD can cause lung cancer and kidney dysfunction. PB can affect the nervous system, cause anaemia and miscarriages
Azo-dyes and related molecules (ao-para-red and-sudan-red 1 to 4 )spices and herbs Chili pepper, paprika powder, chili powder, coarse pepper, cayenne pepper, palm oilprohibitedCertificates of required from the importer and random sampling by the Member States.
Nitrate / nitritegreen vegetablemax. content is formed when nitrate is heated. Nitrite is harmless in a basic but in an acidic environment, nitrosamines are formed (in the stomach) and can cause stomach and liver cancer