Legislation: Milk and Dairy products

Table 1 Regulations Dairy derived from the Status of food-safety

(EC) No. 1069/2009The framework of control and supervision of animal
(EU) No 142/2011Implementing regulation
(EC) No 852/2004Food Hygiene
(EC) No 853/2004Hygiene in the production of products of animal origin
(EC) No 178/2002 General principles and requirements of food law establishing a European Food Safety Authority and laying down procedures in food safety matters
(EC) No 396/2005Maximum residue levels of pesticides in or on certain products
(EC) No 2073/2005Microbiological Criteria for Foodstuffs
(EU) No 1169/2011Provision of consumer food
(EC) No. 37/2010Residues of veterinary medicinal products
(EC) No 1881/2006Determining maximum levels of certain contaminants
(EC) No 1333/2008Food additives

Pathogens: Milk and Dairy products

Table 2 possible pathogens in dairy products derived from the IMIS Hazards table Pathogens

GenusPathogenic speciesGRForm, mobilityO₂T (C.)T1 (C.)pH-OpH-RaWIllness
Bacilluscereus+Rod (3-5 um length 1 um wide) spore-forming, Aerobe (sometimes Fa)28,3510,0-48,06.0-7,54,9-9,3>0.91Poisoning (Tox. 1) and infection (Tox. 2)
Campylobacterjenuni, coliSpiral formed rod, mobile.Min. 3 % Max. 15 % opt. 5 % oxygen42-4530-476,5–7,54,9 – 9,5>0.98 Infection: Stomachache, diarrhoea, fever, sometimes meningitis.
Escherichiacoli (also O157:H7)RodFa30-3710-45.5 (EHEC)74,4-9,5> 0.95Infection by EHEC group of which E. coli 0157:H7 (hamburger disease) is the most severe; the mortality is around 35%.
Listeriamonocytogenes (11 species; 3 cause 90% of the infections)+Rod (0,5-2,0um long, 0,5um wide), mobile at 20-25°C.Fa3,0-37,00-4575-9 (at 4gr. C) 4,4-9,0 (at 30grC)> 0.92Infections of healthy individuals lead to flu . Infants, the Elderly, the ill and pregnant women might get severe symptoms when infected by Listera. (Meningitis, blood poisoning and abortion). In these risk groups is the mortality 30-50%.
Two thousand three hundred species that might cause enteritis (stomach inflammation).Rod, sometimes mobileFa35-375,0-45,074,0-9,0>0.93Infection: intestinal inflammation. For the elderly, small children and sick, illness can be fatal.
Salmonellatyphus; paratyphusRodFa375,0-45,0>0.93Typhus, paratyphus are the most severe illnesses caused by Salmonella.
Staphylococcusaureus, not all species are pathogenic.+Coc (0.5-1um in diameter), coccus are formed in a grape-like cluster.Fa3710,0-45,06,5-7,55,2-9,0>0.85 opt: >0.98Toxin results in vomiting and stomachache. Compared with other infections are, the symptoms mild.

Mycotoxins: Milk and Dairy products

Table 3 possible mycotoxins in dairy products, derived Hazard table Mycotoxins

(toxin from fungus)FungusAgricultural and food productsADI of AWI (ug/kg body weight)EffectsLegislatory regulationsComments
Aflatoxin (five species: B1, B2, G1, G2; M1 occurs in milk and comes from B1) and M2 (M1 and M2 are conversion products of Aflatoxin B1, B2 into lactating mammalsAspergillus flavus Aspergillus parasiticusCereals, buckwheat, maize and maize products, cottonseed, peanuts, other types of (pistachio-nuts, walnuts), , dried figs, milk (products), sesame seed soy and soy products.Acute toxic; degradation of liver and kidneys. Chronic: carcinogenic (cancer forming) especially in the liver.Maximum levels according to Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006Aflatoxin B 1 is the most common and toxic carcinogen. In milk (products) is the most common aflatoxin M 1 formed after that B 1 is broken down. Around 1-3% B 1 is processed in milk to M 1. M 1 is not as poisonous and carcinogenic as B 1. Next to M 1 are other break-down products of B 1 present in milk. Fungus mostly grows during transport and in the tropics, mostly characterised by high temperatures (optimum 25 °C: range 8-37) and or high humidity (>83%). In developed countries (VS) are aflatoxins mainly caused during difficult growth seasons (growth-stress).
Ochratoxin A&BAspergillus Penicillium speciesBarley, rye, wheat, rice, maize, peanuts, Brazilian nuts, peppers, Cotton seed, Cheese.AWI of toxin A: 0,112 (JECFA, 1990) limit: 10 ug/kg food . LD 50 (rat, oral) van toxin A: 20 mg/kgMaximum levels according to Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006Toxin A is more toxic than B. In the Netherlands are such low amounts found that the risk is perceived very low and therefore is there no norm. Growth fungus is possible in a temperate climate. Toxin A is inactivated at > 221 °C
SterigmatocystineAspergillus versicolor;
Aspergillus ruber;
Aspergillus flavus;
Penicillium luteum;
Aspergillus nidulans,
Grain, buckwheat, wheat, rice, peanut, soy, cheese, cheese crust, green coffee beans and melting cheese.No ADIAcute: Damage to liver, teratogenic.
Chronic: mutagenic and carcinogenic.
Maximum levels according to Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006In the Netherlands is research conducted on the presence of toxins in grain, buckwheat and soy products. Toxins are not found and therefore is control considered unnecessary.
PatulinApergillus clavatus;
Penicillium roqueforti;
Penicillium expansum;
Penicillium patulum
Apples, apple juice, moulded fruits, grains, cheese and sausageAWI: 7 (JECFA, 1989)Acute toxic (damaging of lungs, brains, liver and kidneys); carcinogenic effects are not found (IARC, 1985).Maximum levels according to Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006At fermentation of apple juice to Cider and through vitamin C takes destruction place. The Patulin content can be an indication for the handling of GMP- (to establish that rotten apples are not used).

Chemistry: Milk and Dairy products

Table 4 possible chemical derived from Hazard table chemical hazards

Chemical componentFood productLegislationComments
Dioxins: Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), Polychlorinated dibenzofurans PCDF's and 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD). (through Feed) and , fish (especially fatty fish such as herring and salmon) and Vegetables, Oils/fats, dairy and eggsMaximum levels according to Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006Formed from chlorinated linkages during heating with low oxygen levels. Carcinogenic for humans and animals above a threshold level.
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs)Herbs (through Feed) poultry, fish (especially fatty fish such as herring and salmon), Vegetables, Oils/fats, dairy and eggsMaximum levels according to Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006Carcinogenic for animals and humans. Moreover, it might induce skin disorders, reproductive toxicity and liver diseases. PCBs burn above 1200 °C, are insoluble and are applied as plasticizers, paint, ink, lacquer, glue and insecticides.
Components as a consequence of fat oxidation.herbs (products), dairy products (containing normal amounts of fat) and every other product known as a “fatty” product.Accepted, no direct consequences for public health.Fat oxidation causes off flavours of organoleptic characteristics. Through the reaction of oxygen with the formed aldehydes acetic acid, formic acid and propionic acid can be formed. This induces rancidity.
Residues: (animal)medicines, antibiotics, anti-microbial substances, growth promotors and vitamins.ForbiddenInspection for each drug is, a Maximum Residue Level (MRL) established with a specific accepted amount in herbs, liver, kidney, fat, milk and eggs. The usage of Chloramphenicol and nitrofuran is forbidden in the EU and VS while still accepted in some Asian countries.

Viruses, Rickettsie: Milk and Dairy products

Table 5 , rickettsia in dairy products, derived from Hazard table Viruses, rickettsia, prions

, ricketsOriginFood productMIDDiseasePreventive MeasurementsComments
Poliovirus (rickettsia)HumanRaw milkPolioPasteurized milkUnder control in the Netherlands.
Coxiella burnetii
Raw milk   

Fraud: Milk and Dairy products

The NVWA-IOD has not recently conducted any studies within the dairy domain. The number of signals about dairy fraud is also limited.\ More information is available on the following link ‘Fraud

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