Legislation

Table 1 Regulations in Dairy derived from the Status of food-safety

RegulationDescription
(EC) No. 1069/2009The legal framework of and supervision of animal products
(EU) No 142/2011Implementing regulation
(EC) No 852/2004Food
(EC) No 853/2004Hygiene in the production of products of animal origin
(EC) No 178/2002 General principles and of food law establishing a European Food Authority and laying down in food safety matters
(EC) No 2073/2005Microbiological Criteria for Foodstuffs
(EC) No 1169/2011Provision of consumer food information
(EC) No. 37/2010Residues of veterinary medicinal products
(EC) No 1881/2006Determining maximum levels of certain contaminants
(EC) No 1333/2008Food

Pathogens

Table 2 possible in dairy products derived from the IMIS Hazards table Pathogens

GenderSpeciesMorphology Growth factors      OriginFoodMIDIllnessComments
  Form, mobilityGramm HotelsO2.T (C.)T1 (C.)PhoPhrawrso %     
BacillusCereusBar, mobilePosA (sometimes Fa)28.3510-486-7,54,9-9,3>0.91Traces are found everywhereRice, starchy products, puddings, sauces, herbs, spices, dairy>106 (75% of gas traps)Poisoning (Tox. 1) and infection (Tox. 2)Tox 1 is very heat stable; it is important to prevent growth
CampylobacterjenuniRod (3-5 um long 1 um wide) spore former, mobileNegMon 3-15 Opt.: 5%O242-4530-476,5 – 7,54,9 – 9,5Intestinal flora warm-blooded animals; BirdsMeat500Infection: abdominal pain, diarrhoea, fever, sometimes meningitisGrowth does not occur in food. Prone to dehydration. It is estimated that 12-15% (around 500,000) of all cases of acute gastroenteritis in the Netherlands are caused by this bacterium.
Escherichiacoli (also E. coli O157)Rod (2-8 um long, 1um wide), spore formerNegFa30-3710-45.5 (EHEC)74,4-9,5> 0.956-8Human: EHEC: also intestinal flora animal (especially calves).Food contaminated with human faeces. EHEC: meat, milk (raw)> 10 (EHEC)Infection by group EHEC including E.coli 0157:H7 (hamburger disease) most severe; mortality up to approx. 35%.No major explosions yet in the Netherlands, but in the US and Great Britain by E.coli 0157:H7. This is tolerant to acids.
monocytogenes (11 serotypes; 3 of which cause 90% of infections)BarPosFa3-370-4575-9 (at 4gr. C) 4,4-9,0 (at 30grC)> 0.92EverywhereRaw milk, soft, raw milk cheeses, pate, remented sausage.Not knownInfection of healthy people leads to flu-like symptoms. In babies, the elderly, the sick and pregnant women, Listeria can  lead to very serious diseases (meningitis, blood poisoning, abortion). In those groups, mortality is 30-50%.
Salmonella2300 serotypes that can cause enteritis (darmontste-king)BarNegFa35-375-4574-9>0.93Intestinal flora warm-blooded animalsPork, poultry meat (especially chicken), eggs, raw milk>10 5Infection: intestinal inflammation. For the elderly, small children and the sick, illness can be fatalNot very pathogenic, but common
Salmonellatyphoid fever; paratyphoid feverBar, sometimes mobileNegFa375-45PersonWater or food contaminated by human faeces> 10 2Typhoid, paratyphoid most serious disease due to Salmonella.It is estimated that 4-5% (approximately 225,000) of all cases of acute enteritis in the Netherlands are caused by Salmonella.
Staphylococcusaureus(not all types are pathogenic)BarPosFa3710-456,5-7,55,2-9,0>0.85 opt: >0.98Especially human. However, also pigs, poultry, cattleDue to insufficient hygiene of humans, food possible: cream, salads, .> 106 1ng toxin per gram of foodPoisoning by toxin formed in food – > vomiting, abdominal cramps. Compared to other infections/poisonings mild clinical picture.Toxin is heat stable (at least 30 minutes at 100o C for inactivation); toxin may be present without detecting live

Mycotoxins

Table 3 possible mycotoxins in dairy products, derived Hazard table Mycotoxins

Mycotoxin (toxin from fungus)Fungus {1}Agricultural raw / FoodstuffsADI or AWI (ug / kg body weight)EffectsLegal regulationsRemarks
Aflatoxin (five species: B1, B2, G1, G2; M1 occurs in milk and comes from B1) and M2 (M1 and M2 are conversion products of B1, B2 into lactating mammalsAspergillus flavus Aspergillus parasiticus
Aspergillus nomius
Cereal, buckwheat, corn and maize products, cottonseed, peanuts and other nuts (pistachios, walnuts), spices, dried figs, milk (products), soy and soybeans, sesame seedsnone ADIAcutely toxic; affects liver, kidneys. Chronic: carcinogenic (carcinogenic) → especially liver.Maximum levels according to Regulation (EC) 1881/2006Aflatoxin B 1 is the most common and most toxic and carcinogenic In milk (products), aflatoxin M 1 occurs as a breakdown product of B 1. About 1-3% B 1 is converted to M 1 in milk. M 1 is less toxic and carcinogenic than B 1. Besides M 1, more breakdown products of B 1 have been found in milk. Fungi grow mainly in the tropics during storage and transport at high (optimum 25 o C: range 8-37) and / or high humidity (> 83%). In developed countries (US) aflatoxins especially during bad growing season (drought stress).
ochratoxin-a
ochratoxin-b
Aspergillus ochraceus; Penicillium viridicatum; Penicillium purpures-cens; Penicillium verrucosumBarley, Rye, Wheat, Rice, Corn, Peanuts, Brazilian Nuts, Peppers, Cottonseed, CheeseAWI of toxin A: 0.112 (JECFA, 1990) Limit value: 10 µg / kg food. LD 50 (rat, oral) of toxin A: 20 mg / kgAcute: damage to kidneys and liver; possible renal carcinogen (already shown in rats), teratogenic.Maximum levels according to Regulation (EC) 1881/2006Toxin A is more toxic than B. In the Netherlands such low levels are found that the risk is small → no norm. Fungi growth possible in temperate climate. Toxin A is inactivated at T> 221 o C
sterigmatocystinAspergillus versicolor; Aspergillus ruber; Aspergillus flavus; Penicillium luteum A. nidulans, Bipolaris, Buckwheat, Wheat, Rice, Peanut, Soy, Cheese, Cheese Crust, Green Coffee Beans, Processed Cheeseno ADIAcute: damage to liver, teratogenic. Chronic: mutagenic, carcinogenicMaximum levels according to Regulation (EC) 1881/2006In the Netherlands, research has been conducted into the occurrence of toxins in grain, buckwheat and soy products. Toxin has not been found and control is not considered necessary.
patulinApergillus clavatus; Penicillium roqueforti: Penicillium expansum; Penicillium patulumApple, apple juice, moldy fruits, cereals, cheese, sausageAWI: 7 (JECFA, 1989)Acutely toxic (damage to lungs, brain, liver, kidneys); carcinogenic activity not demonstrated (IARC, 1985)During fermentation apple juice to cider and by vitamin C destruction takes place. Dutch research has not shown any carcinogenicity → standard not required. Patulin content can be an indication for GMP guidelines (no rotten apples used).

Chemistry

Table 4 possible hazards derived from Hazard table chemical hazards

SubstanceFoodLegalRemarks
Dioxins: polychlorinated dibenzodioxides (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans PCDFs, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD)meat (through feed) and poultry meat, (in particular certain fatty fish such as herring and salmon) and vegetables, oils and fats, dairy and eggsmax. content 684/2004, EC regulation no. 2375/2001formed from chlorine-containing compounds during heating under oxygen-poor conditions. Carcinogenic to humans and animals above a certain threshold level
Pcb’s (collective name for a group of 209 chemically prepared synthetic substances that do not occur naturally]]meat (via feed) and poultry meat, fish (in particular certain fatty fish such as herring and salmon) and vegetables, oils and fats, dairy and eggsmax. content 684/2004, EC regulation no. 2375/2001
Substances resulting from fat oxidationoils and fats, meat and meat products, dairy products (not the very lean or light products) and all products known as fataccepted, no direct effect on public health.fat oxidation reduces organoleptically desirable properties. Acetic acid, formic acid and propionic acid can be formed by the reaction of oxygen with the formed aldehydes. Causes rancidity.

Viruses, Rickettsie

Table 5 Viruses, rickettsia in dairy products, derived from Hazard table Viruses, rickettsia, prions

Virus, RickettsiaOriginFoodMIDDisease
Measures
Comments
poliovirusHumanRaw milkPolioPasteurization of milkIs under control in the Netherlands
Coxiella burnetii
(rickettsien)
Raw milkQ fever

Fraud

The NVWA-IOD has not recently conducted any studies within the dairy domain. The number of signals about dairy fraud is also limited.\ More information is available on the following link ‘Fraud