Legislation

Table 1 regulation for the meat sector legislation food safety status

RegulationFoodstuffs animal
(EC) No 178/2002General principles and of food law establishing the European and laying down in matters of food
(EC) No 852/2004Food hygiene
(EC) No 853/2004Hygiene in the production of products of animal origin
(EC) No 2073/2005Microbiological criteria for food
(EC) No 1169/2011Provision of food information for consumers
(EC) No 1333/2008Food
(EC) No 882/2004Official on with feed and food law, animal health and animal welfare rules
(EC) No 854/2004Official controls on food from animal products
(EC) No 2074/2005Implementing for special animal products
(EC) No 1234/2007as regards marketing standards for poultry meat

Microbiology

Table 2 Common microbiological hazards

PathogensGRO2T (1)pHMin. AwInc, TimeDurationDRVV / VISymptomsProducts
aeromonasfa5-405-90.978-48 hours2 -7 days100,000,000VIAbdominal pain, (watery) diarrheaWater, , crustaceans and , eggs, vegetables, (chicken) meat
Bacillus cereus+faMay-509-May0.920.5-6 hours24 hours+/- 10 ug / kg per body weightVVLooks like S. aureusRice, starchy products, puddings, sauces, herbs, spices, dairy
8-24 hours1-2 days> 100,000 / gVIResembles C. perfringensMeat, vegetable dish, soup sauce, pudding, (spices)
Campylobacter Jejunim.aer.30-458-Jun0.98 *2-10 days (Usually 2)days to weeks100-500VIFever, stomach ache, bloody diarrheaRaw (chicken) meat, raw , crustaceans and shellfish, vegetables
Clostridium perfringers+anaer15-505-80.958-24 hours1 day1,000,000 – 100,000,000 / gVVStomach cramps, diarrheaMeat dishes. soup (herbs), roast beef
Campylobacter Jejunim.aer.30-456-80.98 *2-10 days (Usually 2)days to weeks100-500VIFever, stomach ache, bloody diarrheaRaw (chicken) meat, raw milk, crustaceans and shellfish, vegetables
E. coli O157fa5-504-90.963-4 days2 – 5 days10-100VIBloody diarrhea, of HUSBeef, hamburger, raw milk cheese, apple cider , sprouts
Listeria monocytogenes+fa0-454.5-90.902 days to 4 weeksunknown> 1 000> 1 000 000VIFever, septicemia, meningitis, miscarriageRaw milk cheese, smoked fish, cooked meats, salad
Salmonella Enteritidisfa5-504-90.948 – 72 hours1 – 3 days> 100,000 (sometimes 10)VIDiarrhea, nausea, vomiting, headache, fever, stomach achePoultry, eggs, raw meat, milk, vegetables
Staphylococcus aureus+fa5-454-90.860.5-6 hours1-3 days1-25 µg ( 100 000 cfu / g)VVNausea, vomiting, stomach acheRaw milk cheese, cooked meats, whipped cream
Yersinia enterocoliticafa0-455-90.96few hours to 6 days2-21 days> 10,000VIFever, diarrhea, stomach achePork, raw milk, water

Table 3 Viruses, rickettsia in , derived from Hazard table Viruses, rickettsia, prions

, Rickettsia, PrionOriginFoodMIDDisease
Measures
Comments
viral-gastro-enteritis (stomach flu with diarrhea, abdominal pain, vomiting) viruses (adenovirusastro-viruscaliciviruscoronavirusNor-walk virusrotavirus)HumanAll foods directly or via aerosols of vomit contaminated by humans or water contaminated by faeces → especially shellfishSome virus particlesGastroenteritis. Incubation time: 12-50 hours; Infants and small children are extra sensitive to viruses.O Hygiene staff
o Do not allow infected persons to process raw food
o Heat: a few minutes at 85-90 ° C
o Sensitive groups should not consume raw shellfish
prionsSheep, old cows, human.Organs with central nervous system tissue (eg brain)Degenerative diseases of the nervous system

Chemistry

Table 4 possible hazards derived from Hazard table Chemical

SubstanceFoodLegalRemarks
PAK’s pak’s (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), benz (a) pyrene]]oil / fat, smoked meat products, aromas, etc.regulation 1881/2006created during combustion processes ( baking, roasting, bbq). Carcinogenic. PAHs cause cancer in the lungs and digestive tract.
Dioxinsdioxins: polychlorinated dibenzodioxides (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans PCDFs, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzodioxin (TCDD)]]meat (via feed) and poultry meat, fish (with especially certain fatty fish such as herring and salmon) and vegetables, oils and fats, dairy and eggsmax. content 684/2004, EC regulation no. 2375/2001formed from chlorine-containing compounds during heating under oxygen-poor conditions. Carcinogenic to humans and animals above a certain threshold level
Pcb-spcb’s (collective name for a group of 209 chemically prepared synthetic substances that do not occur naturally]]meat (via feed) and poultry meat, fish (in particular certain fatty fish such as herring and salmon) and vegetables, oils and fats, dairy and eggsmax. content 684/2004, EC regulation no. 2375/2001
residues-veterinary medicines-antibiotics-and-other-anti-microbial substances-growth promoter-vitaminsresidues: (animal) medicines, antibiotics and other anti-microbial substances, growth promoter, vitaminsmeatprohibitedmeat inspection. A Maximum Residue Level (MRL) has been regulated for each medicine, whereby the maximum permitted concentration in meat, liver, kidney, fat, milk and eggs is regulated. Also in EU countries and US ban on chloramphenicol and nitrofurans. However, they may be used in Eastern European and certain Asian countries.
hormone residuesmeatprohibitedmeat inspection (growth hormones generally not directly carcinogenic or genotoxic, but associated with acute risks)
Substances as a result of fat oxidationoils and fats, meat and meat products, dairy products (not the very lean or light products) further all products known as fataccepted, no direct impact on public health. fat oxidation reduces organoleptically desirable properties. Acetic acid, formic acid and propionic acid can be formed by the reaction of oxygen with the formed aldehydes. Causes rancidity.
Growth promoters anabolic steroidsGrowth promoters; anabolic steroids, divided into three groups: estrogenic, androgenic and progestagenic steroids. Synthetically prepared steroids: ethinyl estradiol, diethylstilbesterol (DES), trenbolone, medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA)meatenergy used for the growth of the animal is used for greater protein production at the expense of fats
Growth promoters; Beta agonists. Known: clenbuterol, salbutamol and bromobuterolmeatensure the breakdown of fats and are used for the production of proteins (repartition drugs)

Table 5 Viruses, rickettsia in meat products, derived from Hazard table Other Biotoxins

Name of poisoningOriginFoodToxic dose (ug)Preventive
measures
biogenic-amine-histaminplants, animals and microbesalmost all protein-rich foods. Histamine is formed from histide by enzymes of mostly the Enterobacteriaceae.influencing physiological processes in the body. Consumption of biogenic amines can lead to poisoning. : nausea, shortness of breath, palpitations, rash, abnormal blood pressure and headache.often occurs in fish in the form of histamine, symptoms resemble food allergies.

Fraud

Meat can be defined as the conscious or deliberate adaptation or alteration of some aspect of meat with the intention of obtaining a financial benefit. This is often done administratively, for example by adjusting the administration, or labeling with the aim of misleading the . Traditionally, the Dutch Food Safety Authority-IOD has a good information position in the meat sector. About half of all reports that the NVWA-IOD receives or collects annually are about meat fraud. The same applies to the criminal investigations carried out by the Dutch food safety authority-IOD: roughly half of these focus on meat fraud.

More information about food fraud can be found on the following link ‘Meat fraud